Managing plant pests

The Canterbury Pest Management Plan 2018–2038 (RPMP) contains five programmes under which declared pests will be managed.

In addition, there are a number of other species which have not been declared pests, however, control of these species may be considered by land occupiers to protect sites where they are impacting on natural biodiversity. These are in the list of other species of interest.

Identified pests and management programmes

For more detailed information please see the Canterbury Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038.

Exclusion Programme

What is the Exclusion Programme?

To prevent the establishment or spread of a pest that is present in New Zealand but not yet present in Canterbury from becoming established in Canterbury.

Good Neighbour Rule (GNR) requiers land occupiers to protect spread of pests from neighbouring properties, including the Crown.

Species included under the Exclusion Programme

Common name Scientific name GNR
Australian sedge Carex longebrachiata  
Broomsedge Andropogon virginicus  
Hornwort  Ceratophyllum demersum  
Kangaroo grass   Themeda triandra  
 Noogoora bur Xathium strumarium  
Nutgrass (purple nutsedge) Cyperus rotundus   
Oxylobium  Oxylobium Lanceolatum   
Palm grass Setaria palmifolia  
Spiny broom Calicotome spinosa  
Woolly nightshade* Solanum mauritianum  

*Classified as unwanted organisms

¹ Also included in Site-led programme

² Unwanted organisms status expires 20/09/2021

Eradication Programme

What is the Eradication Programme?

To reduce a pest’s level of infestation to zero in an area in the short to medium term.

Good Neighbour Rule (GNR) requiers land occupiers to protect spread of pests from neighbouring properties, including the Crown.

Species included under the Eradication Programme

Common name Scientific name GNR
Egeria* Egeria densa  
Entire marshwort* Nymphoides geminata  
Knotweed* (Asiatic
and Giant)
 Fallopia japonica x
sachalinensis
Fallopia sachalinensis
 
Moth plant Araujia hortorum  
Phragmites* Phragmites australis  
Yellow bristle grass   Setaria pumila  
Yellow water lily Nuphar lutea  

*Classified as unwanted organisms

¹ Also included in Site-led programme

² Unwanted organisms status expires 20/09/2021

Progressive Containment Programme

What is the Progressive Containment Programme?

To contain or reduce the geographic distribution of a pest in a defined area over time.

Good Neighbour Rule (GNR) requiers land occupiers to protect spread of pests from neighbouring properties, including the Crown.

Species included under the Progressive Containment Programme

Common name Scientific name GNR
African feather grass* Pennisetum macrourum  
African love grass* Eragrostis curvulua  
Baccharis  Baccharis halimifolia  
Contorta (Lodgepole) pine Pinus contorta   
Corsican pine  Pinus nigra   
European larch (excl. steril hybrids) Larix decidua   
 Mountain pine and dwarf mountain pine  Pinus uncinata and pinus mugo  
 Puna grass Achnatherum caudatum   
Scots pine Pinus sylvestris  
Wilding conifers³    

*Classified as unwanted organisms

¹ Also included in Site-led programme

² Unwanted organisms status expires 20/09/2021

³ Wilding conifers are any introduced conifer trees, including (but not limited to)any of the species listed in table established by natural means, unless it is located within a forest plantation, and does not create any greater risk of wilding conifers spread to adjacent or nearby land than the forest plantation that it is part of. For the purposes of this definition, a forest plantation is an area of 1 hectare or more of predominantly plaFpinented trees.

Sustained Control Programme

What is the Sustained Control Programme?

Ongoing control of a well-established pest to reduce its impact on values and spread to other properties.

Good Neighbour Rule (GNR) requires land occupiers to protect the spread of pests from neighbouring properties, including the Crown.

Species included under the Sustained Control Programme

Common name Scientific name GNR
Bell heather* Erica cinerea   
Boneseed Chrysanthemoides monilifera   
Broom - common, Montpellier, white Cytisus scoparius Teline monspessulanaCytisus multiflorus   
Bur daisy Calotis Iappulacea  
Chilean needle grass  Nassella Neediana  
Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara   
Darwin's barberry  Berberis darwinii  
Gorse Ulex europaeus Yes
Nassella tussock* Nassella trichotoma Yes
Old man's beard* Clematis vitalba Yes
Purple loosestrife* Lythrum salicaria  
Saffron thistle Carthanuslanatus  
Wild Russell lupin³ Lupinus polyphyllus Yes 

*Classified as unwanted organisms

¹ Also included in Site-led programme

² Unwanted organisms status expires 20/09/2021

³ Wild Russell lupin are Russell lupins that are established by natural means

Site-led Programme (Protecting values in places)

What is the Site-led Programme (Protecting values in places)?

Exclude, eradicate, contain, reduce or control a pest within a specific place to an extent that doing so protects the values of that place.

Good Neighbour Rule (GNR) requires land occupiers to protect the spread of pests from neighbouring properties, including the Crown.

Species included under the Site-led Programme

Common name Scientific name GNR
Banana passionfruit*

Passiflora tripartita var
mollissima
P. tripartita var
azuayansis
P. tarminiana
P. pinnatistipula
Passiflora x rosea
P. caerulea

 
Cathedral bells Cobaea scandens   
Lagarosiphon* Lagarosiphon major  
Spartina

Spartina alterniflora,
S. anglica, S. gracilis,
S. maritime, S. ×
townsendii

 
White-edged nightshade  Solanum marginatum  
Wild thyme  Thymus vulgaris   

*Classified as unwanted organisms

¹ Also included in Site-led programme

² Unwanted organisms status expires 20/09/2021

Declared Pests for Canterbury

Being a declared pest means there are specific rules that need to be meet within the Canterbury region for that declared pest. 

African Feather Grass (Cenchrus macrourus)

African Feather Grass

African Feather Grass

African Feather Grass

African Feather Grass

African Feather Grass

African Feather Grass
Background

African Feather Grass is native to Africa.  It grows in a wide range of habitats from sea level to 3500 metres.  It can tolerate fire, drought and frost conditions as well as poor soils.  It does not grow well in wet soils. It grows on steep dry sites, short and tall tussock land, coastal areas, riverbeds, islands, cliffs and wastelands.  South Canterbury has sites of African Feather Grass that Environment Canterbury controls annually with the aim of elimination.

Identification
  • Forms dense, tussock clumps up to 2 metres high
  • leaves are whitish green on top, distinctively ribbed, and dark green underneath
  • Leaf edges feel rough. Hairs cover the leaf sheath, below where the leaf joins the main stem
  • Produces fibrous roots and rhizomes (thick underground stems that form new shoots)
  • Flowers from December to April
  • Flowers form a long narrow spike, straw yellow in colour, and sometimes have a purplish tinge
  • Seeds have bristles that attach easily to clothing, animal hair or wool
  • African feather grass often gets confused with pampas grass and toetoe
  • The main distinguishing features are that African feather grass produces a narrow flower spike and has a hairy leaf sheath. Pampas and toetoe produce fluffy flower heads and do not have hairs on the leaf sheath.
Find out more about African feather grass:

Weed of the month, African feather grass (PDF File, 854.48KB)

Why is it a problem?

African feather grass has an extensive root system making it a difficult species to remove.  It spreads quickly, crowding out native, low-growing plant species.  It is also a fire hazard, and it can block waterways and prevent site access.  It produces a large number of seeds that disperse via wind and stock or clothing.  This means African feather grass seed can be distributed widely, making control difficult.

Control

If you think you have found African feather grass please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with the location of sighting, any photos and your contact details.  Depending on an infestations situation/location will determine what control options will be suitable.

Management

Management

African feather grass is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 ‘Progressive containment’ programme.

Goal

To reduce African feather grass abundance by 10% by 2028 within Canterbury.

Responsibilities

The community is responsible for reporting sightings of African feather grass to Environment Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute African feather grass within New Zealand. Environment Canterbury will work in collaboration with affected parties to meet the goal.
African love grass (Eragrostis curvula)

African love Grass

African Love Grass Seeds

African love Grass

African Love Grass

African love Grass

African Love Grass
Background

African love grass grows in a wide range of habitats from sea-level up to 3500 m.  It can tolerate fire, drought and frost conditions as well as poor soils. It does not grow very well in wet soils.  It can be found growing on steep dry sites, short and tall tussock land, coastal areas, riverbeds, islands, cliffs and wastelands.

African love grass is limited to three active sites across 107 hectares in Canterbury (pg 37 Canterbury regional pest management Plan 2017-2038)

Identification
  • Vigorous, clump-forming, perennial grass up to 1.5 m tall.
  • Densely tufted with narrow leaves (harsh to touch) and usually curly at the tips.
  • Leaves bright green to blue-green (leaves turn bronze-red after a hard frost).
  • Leaf margins rolled inwards, usually hairless.
  • Flower heads (panicles) are pyramid- shaped with small, white flowers.
  • Has fibrous roots, up to 50 cm deep.
  • Blackish, oval-purple seeds attached to arching stems over 1 m long in summer.
Why is it a problem?

African love grass is long-lived, fast growing and produces masses of widely dispersed seeds.  It quickly forms dense stands in open country, displacing other native grasses and plants.  It can invade bare areas, wasteland and disturbed places with the potential to grow throughout New Zealand.  Seed is spread via wind, vehicles, animals and on people.

Control
If you think you have found African love grass please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with the location of sighting, any photos and your contact details.  Depending on an infestations situation/location will determine what control options will be suitable.
Management
African love grass is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 ‘Progressive containment’ programme.

Goal

To reduce African love grass abundance by 10% by 2028 within Canterbury.

Responsibilities

The community is responsible for reporting sightings of African love grass to Environment Canterbury.  Noone may sell, propagate or distribute African love grass within New Zealand.  Environment Canterbury will work in collaboration with affected parties to meet the goal.  

Baccharis (Baccharis halimifolia)

 

Baccharis

Baccharis

Flowers

Baccharis

Leaves

Weedbusters Baccharis
Background

Baccharis originates from the southwest of the United States and northern Mexico, as well as parts of South America.  It was initially sold as an ornamental plant in New Zealand. In Canterbury, Baccharis occurs scattered over an area of 3.5ha on the Port Hills (pg 37 from RPMP 2017-2935).

Identification
  • Evergreen, multi-branched shrub that can grow up to 4 metres tall.
  • The small leaves are oblong in shape.
  • The leaf edges are toothed, predominantly above the middle of the leaf.
  • Small, cream flowers are produced from February to May.
  • Cotton-like seed heads follow flowering.
Why is it a problem?

Baccharis is a threat to pastoral grazing. It is a hardy and adaptive shrub that withstands severe droughts. It can establish easily from wind dispersed seed.

Control

Mechanical

Grub out small plants or infestations removing most of taproot.

Chemical

Spray in spring with an appropriate herbicide
Management
Baccharis declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 and managed in the ‘Progressive containment’ programme.

Goal

Baccharis will be reduced by 10% in the Canterbury region by 2028

Responsibility

Community members are responsible for reporting sightings of Baccharis to Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636.  No one may sell, propagate or distribute Baccharis in Canterbury.  Environment Canterbury will work in collaboration with affected parties to meet the goal of reducing Baccharis extent by 10% by 2028 in Canterbury.
Banana Passionfruit (Passiflora tripartita var mollissima P. tripartita var azuayansis P. tarminiana P. pinnatistipula Passiflora x rosea P. caerulea)

 

Flower

Banana Passionfruit

Fruit

Banana Passionfruit
Background

Banana Passionfruit used to be sold in New Zealand.  Because of its threat to our native forests it has been declared an unwanted organism.  This means no one can sell, propagate or distribute Banana Passionfruit within New Zealand.

Banana Passionfruit vines can be found growing in hedges, trees, plantations, roadsides, forest margins, private gardens, waste places, open forest, coastlines and streamsides. Banana Passionfruit is growing wild on Banks Peninsula and the Port Hills.  It can also be found growing in private gardens in Christchurch.

Identification
  • Vigorous vines that can climb to 10 m high.
  • The leaves are 3-lobed with serrated edges.
  • Long, pink, tubular flowers are produced year-round.
  • Oval green fruit up to 10 cm long follow flowering.
  • The fruit turn yellow or orange as they ripen
Why is it a problem?

Banana Passionfruit grows quickly to the canopy where it forms layers that smother the vegetation beneath.  This prevents light reaching the forest floor and in turn stops desirable plant species from regenerating underneath.  Birds and possums can eat the fruit, potentially dispersing the seed further afield.  Banana Passionfruit can also grow from fragments.

Control
  • Pull roots up (all year round).
  • Cut and treat stump (all year round): cut trunk near to the ground, and swab freshly cut stump with metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L); or Tordon BK (100ml/L); or triclopyr 600g/L (100ml/L); or Banvine (200ml/L).
  • Roots normally easy to pull out. Use herbicide only when roots cannot be pulled.
Management
Banana Passionfruit is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and is managed as a site-led programme.

Goal

Banana Passionfruit will be reduced by 50% at each of the sites in the maps below by 2028 so the specific values of each site are protected.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury will take a lead role and work with affected land occupiers in bringing about the desired levels of environmental protection to the Banana Passionfruit sites mapped below.

 

Bell Heather (Erica cinerea)

 

Bell Heather

Bell Heather

Bell Heather

Bell Heather flower

Bell Heather

Bell Heather
Background

Content soon to come

Identification
  • Bushy, evergreen tough shrub (<90 cm tall) with woody, wiry stems and densely hairy young shoots becoming hairless as they mature.
  • Long dark green to brown leaves (1.5-3.5 mm long) are in opposite pairs on the stem, overlapping in four vertical rows.
  • Bell-shaped, pink to pale purple flowers (2-4 mm long) on narrow, leafy, elongated, upright clusters (2-9 cm long) appear from December to March and are followed by tiny, round, hairy seed capsules.
Why is it a problem?

Forms dense stands, suckers and seeds profusely, and is faster growing than its subalpine competitors.  Tolerates cold, high to low rainfall, semi shade, and poor soils, but is intolerant of heavy shade.

Control

  • Stump swab: cut plant close to ground apply metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g) + glyphosate (100ml) per L water or picloram gel to the fresh stump.
  • During active spring growth you can weed wipe with 2,4-D butyl ester (500ml/L) or Spray 2,4-D butyl ester (50ml/10L).

Find out more at Weedbusters.org.nz.

Management

Management

Bell heather is classified as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Sustained Control programme.

Goal

The extent of Bell heather does not increase and biodiversity values on adjacent land are not adversely affected over the duration of the plan.

Responsibilities

Everyone shall ensure Bell heather (excludes double flowered varieties) is not sold, propagated or distributed within New Zealand.
Environment Canterbury will monitor plant selling outlets to ensure Bell heather is not sold in Canterbury.
Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera)

Boneseed, like many of our environmental weeds, was first introduced to New Zealand for use as an ornamental plant. Native to South Africa, a lack of pests and disease in New Zealand has allowed it to grow unchecked.

Boneseed Flower

Boneseed

Boneseed

Boneseed

Boneseed

Boneseed

 

Background

Boneseed is a South African native. It was introduced to New Zealand as an ornamental plant.  Since its arrival it has escaped from home gardens and is invading Canterbury’s coastal areas.  It gets its name from its seeds which are very hard.

Identification
  • Bushy shrub or small tree up to 3 m tall
  • The dull green leathery leaves have toothed edges
  • Leaves are not lost over winter
  • Bright yellow daisy-like flowers appear in clusters from August to February
  • Seed turns from green to black as it ripens

Related documents:

Why is it a problem?

A tolerance of dry, infertile soils allows boneseed to colonise and establish easily in coastal areas. Its vigorous growth will displace desirable plants, shade out native seedlings and reduce or prevent public access to coastal and beach areas. It is highly flammable and will regenerate prolifically after fire. 

Control

Control of boneseed is relatively easy.  Hand pull small plants. Larger plants should be cut just above ground level and the stump immediately treated with an appropriate herbicide.  Removed plants should be taken to refuse stations, or composted if all seeds are removed.  Follow up care will be needed as any seed remaining on the ground will germinate rapidly once the soil is disturbed and the area is opened to light.

A natural control agent of boneseed in South Africa is the boneseed leafroller moth.  In 2005 New Zealand was granted permission to release the moth, in 2006 a shipment was imported from South Africa and then its first releases were made in 2007.  It has been widely distributed throughout New Zealand but has only been confirmed as established in some North Island sites.

Related documents:

Management
Boneseed is listed as a pest in Canterbury’ Regional Pest Plan 2017-2038 in the ‘Sustained Control’ programme.

Goals

  • i) Prevent boneseed populations levels from increasing within the Port Hills/Lyttleton Harbour zone (refer map)
  • ii) Reduce boneseed density by 10% outside of the of the Port Hills/Lyttleton Harbour containment zone

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury is responsible for inspections and will work with affected land occupiers to reduce the incidence of boneseed to meet the plans goals.

Boneseed is an unwanted organism.  This means that no one may sell, propagate, distribute boneseed within New Zealand.  Refer Section 52 &53 of the biosecurity act 1993.

Broom (Cytisus scoparius, C. multiflorus, Teline monspessulana)

Gorse and broom first arrived in New Zealand in the early 1800s. Seed was brought in by English settlers to grow plants for hedging. 

Broom

Broom

Broom

Broom

Broom

Broom

 

Background

Broom first arrived in New Zealand in the early 1800s. Seed was brought in by English settlers to grow plants for hedging. A lack of natural control agents in New Zealand in combination with high seed production, unpalatability to stock, and invasive, colonising growth habitats have allowed gorse and broom to become the widespread problems they are today.

Identification
Broom is a deciduous shrub which grows up to 2.5m tall. Itismostrecognisable by its distinctive upright green stems. Broom normally grows in areas of high rainfall and can tolerate a wide range of soil conditions.
  • large yellow flowers
  • Fruit/seeds are brownish black flattened seed pods - similar to Gorse
  • Seeds are ejected from their pods to up to 10m away
  • Leaves are pliable, upright, ridged green stems that  may have small leaves, however, broom stems may also be leafless
Why is it a problem?
Broom is widespread and scattered across land throughout Canterbury.  Both plants can form dense stands that prevent stock from grazing infested areas.  Seeds may survive in the soil for more than 50 years.  Gorse and broom are agricultural pests, but can also cause problems in forestry, braided rivers and protected natural areas.
Control

Firstly establish the plant(s) are not a New Zealand native broom species.

Chemical control

Foliar spray: An all year round method depending on chemical used and weather conditions. The optimum spray time is from spring to summer when plants are in leaf and actively growing. Foliar spraying is a useful technique for large infestations and scattered plants. Note: Plants need to be covered on all sides with spray for an effective kill.

Cutting and stump treating: An all year round method. Useful technique in ecologically sensitive sites (e.g., rocky outcrops). Cut the stump as close to the ground as possible and apply chemical to the fresh wound with an appropriate herbicide. This method is effective and reduces harm to desirable species.

Herbicide active ingredients registered to control broom & gorse

  • Picloram & Trichlopur mix—A selective herbicide, it doesn’t kill grass but will kill broadleaf weeds. Picloram has a residual control effect on legumes. During periods of slow growth or when growth is dormant (e.g., winter spraying) or stressed, hot, dry, dusty, frosty or salty conditions or when plants have been slashed or grazed, the addition of penetrant to spray mix is recommended.
  • Trichlopyr — A broad spectrum systemic herbicide. Does not damage grass. Also controls broadleaf weeds in turf. Best results are achieved when applied during periods of active growth. No residual control effect.
  • Metsulfuron — A non-hormone herbicide.  It can be used in winter but it takes longer for plants to turn off.  Has a residual control effect. Can cause damage to some trees.
  • Glyphosate — A non-selective herbicide i.e., it will kill most plants that it comes in contact with. To work effectively broom & gorse plants need to be actively growing and not under drought stress with clean foliage (not dusty!) at time of spraying. Note: For gorse — do not treat plants stressed by drought, grazing or previous herbicide treatment. A surfactant must be added or poor results will occur! Rates are only recommended for handgun application in the Agrichemical manual. Glyphosate is inactivated on contact with the soil thus no residual weed control effect.

For choosing the best chemical for your location and situation, contact your local chemical supplier or contractor. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions when using chemicals and prevent spray from entering water ways and contacting the soil. If spraying near waterways, contact your local Regional Council to check if what you intend to do is permitted or will require a permit.

Mechanical control

Slashing/trimming: A useful method to prevent plants seeding along roadsides. This method requires control at least once annually as the plants do not die but will re-sprout (all year round method).
Pulling/digging: Useful in ecologically sensitive sites with scattered small plants (all year round method). Ensure minimum soil disturbance as disturbance encourages seed germination. Leave plants on site to rot down.
Cultivation/Grazing: Cultivation encourages seed germination and must be followed by either blanket spraying or intensive grazing. Over sowing with grass seed and applying fertilisers to improve grass growing conditions can also help to reduce broom seedling re-growth.

Biological control

A good option for large block infestations that are not likely to be sprayed (over 50sqm in area) to reduce plant vigour. Note biological controls assist in reducing plant vigour and rate of spread rather than killing and controlling a broom infestation. Contact your Regional Council (Environment Canterbury) or Landcare Research for more information on broom bio control agents for your area.

Maintain a dense pasture sward to reduce competition from weeds like gorse and broom. Eradicate gorse and broom before seed is produced. Spot spraying, or cutting and immediate stump treatment is useful for isolated plants. Cut stumps must be treated (with herbicide) while the cut is still wet to allow the absorption of herbicide.

Larger infestations can be slashed. Burning encourages seed germination and must be followed by blanket spraying or heavy grazing. Sheep will only graze gorse at the soft seedling stage (about 6–8 weeks). Spraying of large infestations is successful but 100% coverage of each plant is essential.

Biological control for gorse and broom may be an option to assist in containing large infestations. Insects are available at specific times of year and agents work together to reduce plant vigour and seed production. However, biological control is unlikely to kill plants and so does not achieve compliance with the requirements of the Regional Pest Management Strategy.

Follow-up control work will be necessary with all options.

Related document:

Management programme
Broom is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 in the ‘Sustained control’ programme.

Goal

Canterbury’s land production values are not adversely affected by broom (Plan objective 8 & 14).

Responsibilities

Rural land occupiers within the gorse and broom zone (see map), are required to control gorse and broom plants and patches on land that cover 50 square metres or less. This applies to all land within this area except land occupied by the Crown (Government).

In addition, rural land occupiers throughout all of Canterbury (including the Crown) are required to protect neighbouring properties by keeping boundaries clear of gorse and broom (Good neighbour rule). If you have a gorse or broom hedge along your boundary, you can meet your good neighbour requirements by trimming your hedges top and sides annually.

Environment Canterbury will only enforce rules for gorse and broom where these pests have the potential to impact on productive (has economic impacts) land or where there are potential impacts on a site where natural biodiversity is being protected. Urban properties will not be generally inspected.

Environment Canterbury is also working with land occupiers in some ‘site-led’ gorse and broom areas - refer.  The reason for these site-led areas is to manage discrete isolated infestations OVER 50sqm.

Map 4

Map 4 Gorse and Broom containment zones

Hakataramea

Map 7.1 Gors and Broom, Hakataramea

Ohau

Map 7.2 Gors and Broom, Ohau

 

Rakaia

Map 7.3 Gorse and Broom, Rakaia

Rangitata

Map 7.4 Gorse and Broom, Rangitata

cell #3

 

Related document:

Bur daisy  (Calotis lappulacea)

 

Bur Daisy

Bur Daisy

Bur Daisy

Bur Daisy

Bur Daisy

Bur Daisy
Background

Originally from Australia, bur daisy probably arrived in New Zealand attached to the wool of imported sheep.  It prefers to grow on dry, eroded hill slopes and rocky outcrops. If uncontrolled, bur daisy will spread to fertile country.

New Zealand’s distribution is currently restricted to isolated sites in Marlborough, Canterbury and Otago but has the potential to spread throughout South Island dry, pastoral country.  It is currently found on 34 active sites scattered across 235 hectares largely in mid and north Canterbury.

Identification
  • Small, perennial herb (up to 40cm tall and 1m in diameter) with many fine, green branches.
  • The green, thin (almost linear) leaves are fairly insignificant.
  • Small, pom pom-like clusters of bright yellow flowers are produced for most of the year, but are most prolific over the summer.
  • Flowers develop into very hard, brown burs, covered in tiny hooks.
Why is it a problem?
Bur daisy is a serious threat to our wool industry due to the cost involved in removing burs from sheep fleeces.  If left uncontrolled, bur daisy replaces desirable plant species.  It produces many seeds that are quickly spread by stock movement and remain viable for many years.
Control

Maintaining a good pasture cover to prevent re-establishment is useful.  Grub out small plants.  For larger patches chemical control using glyphosate is effective.

If you think you have found bur daisy please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with details of your sighting.

Management programme

Bur daisy is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and is managed in the Sustained Control programme.

Goal

Bur daisy will be controlled in Canterbury so its extent does not increase and production values on adjacent land are not adversely affected during the life of the plan.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers to ensure the goal is met.  No one may sell, distribute or propagate bur daisy within Canterbury or New Zealand as it is an unwanted organism. 

Cathedral Bells  (Cobaea scandens)

 

Cathedral Bells

Cathedral Bells

Cathedral Bells

Cathedral Bells

Cathedral Bells

Cathedral Bells
Background

Cathedral bells can be found growing in forest, forest margins, open areas, along riverbanks, roadsides, in scrub and in private gardens.  Originally from Australia, bur daisy probably arrived in New Zealand attached to the wool of imported sheep.  It prefers to grow on dry, eroded hill slopes and rocky outcrops.  If uncontrolled, bur daisy will spread to the fertile country.

Identification
  • Vigorous evergreen vine
  • Oval leaves are dark green above and whitish below
  • Twinning purplish stems can grow up to 10 m long
  • Large bell-shaped flowers appear from December to May
  • Flowers are green at first but turn deep purple with age
  • Flowers develop into large oval fruit which contain winged seeds
Why is it a problem?
Cathedral bells is a fast-growing species that grows to the canopy.  Here it forms a dense mass where it can smother the vegetation beneath it and suppress the growth of native seedlings.  The winged seeds are easily transported to new sites by wind, water and soil movement.  Cut stumps and dumped vegetation can also re-sprout very quickly.
Control

Non chemical control

  • Trace vines back to the roots and then dig out. Ensure no vines are trailing on the ground as these will take root. Dispose of any plant material at a refuse transfer station or bury deeply.

Chemical control

  • Stump swab (all year round): cut vines as close to the roots as possible, and treat rooted ends liberally with Tordon Brushkiller (100ml/L) or Banvine (200ml/L) or picloram gel or Yates Woody Weed killer (400ml/L).
  • Spray (spring-summer): Banvine (120ml/10L) or Yates Woody Weedkiller (24ml/L).
  • Spray (spring-summer) from ground level to 2m high: Tordon Gold (120ml/10L) or Tordon Brushkiller (60ml/10L + penetrant) or triclopyr 600 EC (60ml/10L + penetrant) or triclopyr 120g/L (250ml/10L).

NOTE when using chemicals follow the labels and ensure you meet any Regional plan rules e.g., Land and water plan.

Management programme

Cathedral bells are a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and managed in the Site-led programme.

Goal

Cathedral bells will be reduced by 30% by 2028 at each of sites to be managed in the maps below.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury will take a lead role and work with affected land occupiers to achieve the goal for Cathedral bells.

Chilean Needle Grass (Nassella neesiana)

Chilean needle grass is a pest plant which poses a significant threat to the sustainability of farming in Canterbury, and to our environment. Environment Canterbury has declared Chilean needle grass as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038. 

Chilean Needle Grass

Chilean Needle Grass

CNG Seeds

Chilean Needle Grass

Chilean Needle Grass

Chilean Needle Grass
Background

Chilean needle grass is an invasive weed that out-competes productive pasture grasses and takes over large areas if left uncontrolled. It is unpalatable to stock when it is seeding (November-January), reducing the number of stock that can be carried during this period. Its seeds have a sharp, needle-like tip which attaches easily to stock and can penetrate skin and muscle. This can cause painful abscesses for the animal, and can lead to a downgrading of pelts, meat or wool. 

Identification
  • Erect tussock grass which grows up to 1 m tall.
  • Leaves are up to 5 mm wide with rough edges and they are ribbed on the upper surface.
  • Distinctive, purple drooping flower heads that change to pale brown when mature.
  • Each seed is up to 10 mm long with a hard, sharply-pointed head and a long, hair-like awn which is about 70 mm long.
  • There are additional hidden seeds on the stem at the leaf nodes and at the base of the plant.
Why is it a problem?

Chilean needle grass is widespread in Marlborough and Hawkes Bay, and has been found on a small number of sites in North Canterbury.

It currently infests about 3700 hectares, and has the potential to affect up to 15 million hectares nationwide.

Control

What do I do if I think I’ve found it on my property?

If you think you have found Chilean needle grass on your property, or think that you have bought contaminated seed, stock or feed, report it to Environment Canterbury immediately. A Biosecurity Officer will visit your property to identify the plant and give you help and advice on how to manage it.

How do I stop it spreading to my property?

Chilean needle grass seeds are heavy, and are not easily wind-dispersed. The seed is sharp, and spreads by attaching itself to anything that brushes past the plant. People, animals, vehicles, machinery and equipment, as well as soil, mud and contaminated feed can all carry Chilean needle grass seed.

To prevent Chilean needle grass spreading to your property, put basic vehicle hygiene and farm biosecurity practices in place.

How do I control it on my property?

Chilean needle grass can be difficult to control once established. A range of physical and chemical control methods, tailored specifically to your property may be required. You will also need to put strict hygiene and biosecurity protocols in place to prevent Chilean needle grass leaving your property and infesting other areas. For advice on control methods for your property, contact Environment Canterbury.

Further information

The Chilean Needle Grass Awareness Programme is a joint programme partnered by Environment Canterbury, Hawkes Bay Regional Council, Marlborough District Council and the Ministry for Primary Industries.

Related documents

Management programme

Chilean needle grass is widespread in Marlborough and Hawkes Bay, and has been found on a small number of sites in North Canterbury.

It currently infests about 3700 hectares, and has the potential to affect up to 15 million hectares nationwide.


Chilean needle grass (CNG) is a listed pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 in the Containment control programme.

Goal

Current Chilean needle grass infestation levels will not increase and plants are prevented from spreading to other properties. Adverse pastoral production values due to Chilean needle grass will be minimised.

Responsibilities

If you have CNG on your land you will need to control all plants within 5 metres of adjoining property boundaries. You will also need to follow a Chilean needle grass management plan specific for your property. (Plan rule 6.4.8)

Your Management plan needs to be written and then certified by an authorised Environment Canterbury person. Your management plan needs to address the following criteria on how you will contain the pest (where relevant)

  • The sale of sheep grazed in known CNG areas
  • The inspection of livestock including cattle, horses, deer, dogs from known CNG areas prior to sale or movement outside of the property boundary.
  • Vehicle hygiene protocols for all vehicles/machinery/equipment/personal
  • Sale and distribution of any crops
  • Visitor entry and exit points, signage, access
  • Notification to Environment Canterbury of stock movement beyond infected property
  • Specifically address the use of CNG infected land for recreational use.

If you have CNG you will also need to prevent it from releasing panicle seed on your land OR have a written Management Agreement. (Plan rule 6.4.9)

If you are eligible for a written Management Agreement it will need to cover the following,

  • A map with the physical attributes of your property, including the known locations of GNG and noting the control mechanisms you have/will have in place.
EITHER
  • Identify areas, where you will undertake control works on your land and specify the control, works to be done (including physical and /or chemical control methods OR

Or

  • Where you haven’t identified areas for control, identify an area/s where Environment Canterbury shall undertake a search and any necessary control works

Your written management agreement needs to be reviewed annually or earlier if you have a change in land use that would result in your agreement being unfit for purpose.

Related documents

Coltsfoot  (Tussilago farfara)

 

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot

Coltsfoot
Background

Coltsfoot grows in heavy soils, stream margins and damp loose gravel areas.  The plant dies back during winter.  It is extremely rare in New Zealand, present on 27 sites scattered across 1,118 hectares in the Waimakariri River catchment.

Identification
  • Perennial, mat-forming herb which grows up to 20 cm high.
  • Single daisy-like flowers appear at the top of the flower-stalk before the leaves begin to grow in spring.
  • The large, leathery leaves can occasionally have a spider web appearance. Leaves have finely-toothed leaf edges.
  • Upper leaf surface is green and smooth.  Lower leaf surface is grayish-white with woolly hairs.
  • Small brown fruit are produced, attached to a dandelion-like parachute of hairs.
Why is it a problem?
Coltsfoot is invasive and there is the potential for plant fragments to enter and clog small waterways.  The plants can also invade irrigated pasture.  Coltsfoot spreads mainly via underground rhizomes (underground stems) or rhizome fragments. It can also be spread by wind-blown seed.
Control

If you think you have found coltsfoot please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with details of your sighting.

Management programme

Coltsfoot is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 217-2038 and is managed under the Sustained control program.

Goal

Coltsfoot will be controlled in Canterbury so its extent does not increase and biodiversity values on adjacent land are not adversely affected over the duration of the plan.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers to ensure the goal is met for the duration of the plan.  No one may sell, propagate or distribute coltsfoot within New Zealand as it is an unwanted organism.

Darwin's barberry (Berberis darwinii)

 

Darwin's Barberry

Darwin's Barberry

Darwin's Barberry

Darwin's Barberry

Darwin's Barberry

Darwin's Barberry
Background

Darwin’s barberry was sold as a garden plant.  It originates from Chile and Argentina.  It is known to infest 254 sites scattered across 2,500 hectares of Canterbury.  It threatens the purity of our indigenous forest by invading intact and undisturbed stands.  Older plants can flower and produce seeds in the shade and so perpetrate the production of fresh seed.

Identification
  • Evergreen (or semi-deciduous) shrub up to 4 m tall.
  • ‘Holly’-shaped leaves are glossy dark green on the top and pale underneath.
  • 5-pronged spines extend out where the leaves join the stem.
  • The wood inside the stems is yellow.
  • Orange flowers hang in drooping clusters from July - February.
  • Purple/blackberries follow flowering
Why is it a problem?
Darwin’s barberry is an agressive, fast-growing and long lived species.  This species can survive in a wide range of conditions, even tolerating low light levels.  Once established, Darwin’s barberry can prevent native plants from regenerating beneath it.  Birds spread the berries to places where it can be difficult to control.
Control

Physical control

Grub out (all year round). Leave on site to rot down.

Chemical

Stump swab (all year round) or spray (spring-autumn) with an appropriate herbicide.

Management programme

Darwin's barberry is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 and managed in the Sustained programme.

Goal

The extent of Darwin’s barberry at the known 254 sites in the Canterbury Region does not increase.

Responsibilities

No one may sell, propagate or distribute Darwin’s barberry.  Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers to meet the goal.

 

Egeria (Egeria Densai)

 

Egeria

Egeria densa underwater  (Photo credit- NIWA)

Egeria

Egeria densaflowersr 2 (Photo credit - NIWA)

Egeria

Egeria densa mat Lake Maungaratanu (NIWA)
Background

Egeria is native to South America. It grows in fresh water.  It is present in Waikato hydro lakes and scattered elsewhere in the North Island.  It is only occasional in the South Island so our aim is to prevent its spread in the Canterbury region.  To help keep Canterbury free of new Egeria incursions you can ‘check clean dry’ by removing all plant debris from your aquatic equipment every time you enter or leave to go to a new waterway.

Identification
  • Egeria can get confused with Canadian pondweed (Elodea). Elodea is common it has smaller leaves arranged in groups of 3 around the stem. It is also confused with Lagrosiphon. Lagarosiphon has leaves arranged in a spiral around the stem and the leaves cur downwards. Egeria is larger than these two weed species and is the only oxygen weed in NZ with visible white flowers.
  • Egeria has dark green leaves, up to 40 mm long and 2-5 mm wide.
  • Leaves join onto the stems in groups of 4 or more.
  • Lower leaves may arise in 3’s.
  • Stems are multi-branched, 3 mm in diameter and they break easily.
  • Plants are usually totally submerged, but Egeria can grow right to the water surface and form a tangled mat.
  • Flowers have 3 white petals that emerge above the water.

Find out more about Egeria:

Weed of the month, Egeria (PDF File, 828.11KB)

Why is it a problem?

Egeria is a long-lived aquatic pest plant. It grows quickly in most water types.  It forms dense stands that shade out native aquatic plants destroying animal and plant habitats. When it rots, the plants degrade the water quality for other species to survive.

It grows from any stem fragment making it easy to move to other water bodies if people do not check and clean their contaminated clothing or equipment between waterways.  It is also very difficult to kill. All these factors make Egeria an invasive species.

Control

Egeria is managed in the Eradication programme. Environment Canterbury will manage its control.  If you think you have found Egeria in Canterbury contact us on 0800 324636.

Management programme

Management

Egeria is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Eradication programme.

Goal

Reduce Egeria infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members will let Environment Canterbury know if they find Egeria in Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute Egeria in New Zealand. Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers and manage the control of Egeria to meet the goal.

Entire marshwort (Nymphoides geminata)

 

Entire marshwort

Timaru, Entire Marshwort

Flowers

 Entire Marshwort, flowers

Entire marshwort 

Entire Marshwort
Background

Entire marshwort is a perennial floating-leaved aquatic plant with ‘lily’ shaped leaves and yellow flowers on long stalks.  It originates from Australia and entered New Zealand through the ornamental pond plant trade.  It prefers growing in slow-flowing freshwater less than 1m deep. It can survive in damp mud.  There is one known site of Entire marshwort in Mid Canterbury.

Identification
  • Heart-shaped leaves float on the water surface like small water lily leaves.
  • Long stems (stolons) lie just below the water’s surface
  • Leaves are bright green on the upper-side and can be pinkish in colour on the under-side
  • It grows bright yellow flowers that have 5 petals with fringed edges
  • Yellow fringed edged flowers are held on stalks above the water surface
Why is it a problem?

Once established, entire marshwort forms dense mats of floating leaves. These dense mats out-compete both submerged and floating native aquatic species. They also de-oxygenate the water, causing harm to aquatic life. Large masses of entire marshwort can choke and disrupt the recreational use of waterways. Entire marshwort is easily spread by broken fragments and creeping stem growth.

Control

Entire marshwort is managed in the Eradication programme Environment Canterbury will manage its control.  If you think you have found Entire marshwort in Canterbury contact us on 0800 324636.

Management programme

Entire marshwort is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Elimination programme.

Goal

Reduce Entire marshwort infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members will let Environment Canterbury know if they find Entire marshwort in Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute Entire marshwort in New Zealand Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers and manage the control of Entire Marshwort to meet the goal.

Gorse (Ulex europaeus)

Gorse and broom first arrived in New Zealand in the early 1800s. Seed was brought in by English settlers to grow plants for hedging. 

Gorse Mites

Gorse Mites

Gorse Flowers

Gorse Flowers

Gorse

Gorse
Background

Gorse and broom first arrived in New Zealand in the early 1800s. Seed was brought in by English settlers to grow plants for hedging. A lack of natural control agents in New Zealand in combination with high seed production, unpalatability to stock, and invasive, colonising growth habitats have allowed gorse and broom to become the widespread problems they are today.

Identification
  • Sharply spiny shrub grows 2-3 m tall.
  • Woody erect or spreading stems which are many-branched in younger plants but become bare at the base as the plant gets older.
  • Leaves are reduced to spines, new leaves less so.
  • Spines are deeply furrowed.
  • Pea-like yellow flowers (13-20 mm long) appear from May to November (occasionally all year round).
  • Green hairy seed pods (13-25 mm long) which turn black when mature and explode to release seeds.

 

Control

Firstly establish the plant(s) are not a New Zealand native broom species.

Chemical control

Foliar spray: An all year round method depending on chemical used and weather conditions. The optimum spray time is from spring to summer when plants are in leaf and actively growing. Foliar spraying is a useful technique for large infestations and scattered plants. Note: Plants need to be covered on all sides with spray for an effective kill.

Cutting and stump treating: An all year round method. A useful technique in ecologically sensitive sites (e.g., rocky outcrops). Cut the stump as close to the ground as possible and apply chemical to the fresh wound with an appropriate herbicide. This method is effective and reduces harm to desirable species.

Herbicide active ingredients registered to control broom & gorse

  • Picloram & Trichlopur mix — A selective herbicide, it doesn’t kill grass but will kill broadleaf weeds. Picloram has a residual control effect on legumes. During periods of slow growth or when growth is dormant (e.g., winter spraying) or stressed, hot, dry, dusty, frosty or salty conditions or when plants have been slashed or grassed, the addition of penetrant to spray mix is recommended.
  • Trichlopyr — A broad spectrum systemic herbicide. Does not damage grass. Also controls broadleaf weeds in turf. Best results are achieved when applied during periods of active growth. No residual control effect.
  • Metsulfuron — A non-hormone herbicide. It can be used in winter but it takes longer for plants to turn off. Has a residual control effect. Can cause damage to some trees.
  • Glyphosate — A non-selective herbicide i.e., it will kill most plants that it comes in contact with. To work effectively broom & gorse plants need to be actively growing and not under drought stress with clean foliage (not dusty!) at time of spraying. Note: For gorse — do not treat plants stressed by drought, grassing or previous herbicide treatment. A surfactant must be added or poor results will occur! Rates are only recommended for handgun application in the Agrichemical manual. Glyphosate is inactivated on contact with the soil thus no residual weed control effect.

For choosing the best chemical for your location and situation, contact your local chemical supplier or contractor. Always follow the manufacturers instructions when using chemicals and prevent spray from entering waterways and contacting the soil. If spraying near waterways, contact your local Regional Council to check if what you intend to do is permitted or will require a permit.

Mechanical control

Slashing/trimming: A useful method to prevent plants seeding along roadsides. This method requires control at least once annually as the plants do not die but will re-sprout (all year round method).
Pulling/digging: Useful in ecologically sensitive sites with scattered small plants (all year round method). Ensure minimum soil disturbance as disturbance encourages seed germination. Leave plants on site to rot down.  
Cultivation/Grazing: Cultivation encourages seed germination and must be followed by either blanket spraying or intensive grazing. Over sowing with grass seed and applying fertilisers to improve grass growing conditions can also help to reduce broom seedling re-growth.

Biological control

A good option for large block infestations that are not likely to be sprayed (over 50sqm in area) to reduce plant vigour. Note biological controls assist in reducing plant vigour and rate of spread rather than killing and controlling a broom infestation. Contact your Regional Council (Environment Canterbury) or Landcare Research for more information on broom bio control agents for your area.

Maintain a dense pasture sward to reduce competition from weeds like gorse and broom. Eradicate gorse and broom before seed is produced. Spot spraying, or cutting and immediate stump treatment is useful for isolated plants. Cut stumps must be treated (with herbicide) while the cut is still wet to allow the absorption of herbicide.

Larger infestations can be slashed. Burning encourages seed germination and must be followed by blanket spraying or heavy grazing. Sheep will only graze gorse at the soft seedling stage (about 6–8 weeks). Spraying of large infestations is successful but 100% coverage of each plant is essential.

Biological control for gorse and broom may be an option to assist in containing large infestations. Insects are available at specific times of year and agents work together to reduce plant vigour and seed production. However, biological control is unlikely to kill plants and so does not achieve compliance with the requirements of the Regional Pest Management Strategy.

Follow-up control work will be necessary with all options.

Related document:

Management programme

Gorse is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 in the ‘Sustained control’ programme.

Goal

Canterbury’s land production values are not adversely affected by Gorse (Plan objective 8 & 14).

Responsibilities

Rural land occupiers within the gorse and broom zone (see map), are required to control gorse and broom plants and patches on land that cover 50 square metres or less. This applies to all land within this area except land occupied by the Crown (Government).

In addition, rural land occupiers throughout all of Canterbury (including the Crown) are required to protect neighbouring properties by keeping boundaries clear of gorse and broom (Good neighbour rule). If you have a gorse or broom hedge along your boundary, you can meet your good neighbour requirements by trimming your hedges top and sides annually.

Environment Canterbury will only enforce rules for gorse and broom where these pests have the potential to impact on productive (has economic impacts) land or where there are potential impacts on a site where natural biodiversity is being protected. Urban properties will not be generally inspected.

 

Map 4

Map 4 Gorse and Broom containment zones

Hakataramea

Map 7.1 Gors and Broom, Hakataramea

Ohau

Map 7.2 Gors and Broom, Ohau

 

Rakaia

Map 7.3 Gorse and Broom, Rakaia

Rangitata

Map 7.4 Gorse and Broom, Rangitata

cell #3

 

Related document:

Japanese, giant and Indian/Himalayan knotweed (Fallopia japonica, F. sachalinensis and Persicaria wallichii)

 

Flowers

Fallopia japonica 2 - credit Weedbusters

Asiatic Knotweed

Fallopia japonica 2 - credit Weedbusters

Leaves

Fallopia japonica 2 - credit Weedbusters
Background

Knotweed in known at six sites in the Canterbury region.

Identification
  • Stems slender, hollow, zig-zag from leaf node to leaf node, up to 4m high.
  • Leaves heart to lancet-shaped, alternating, up to 40cm long.
  • Stems die in autumn and re-grow in spring from woody rhizomes.
  • Flowers small, white or pink, clustered along short branches.
  • Japanese knotweed produces small (2.5–3mm long) angled glossy brown seeds in New Zealand.
  • Giant knotweed is also sometimes known as elephant ear as it is the tallest (up to 4m high) and has the biggest leaves.
  • Indian/Himalayan knotweed looks similar but grows only up to 1.8m high, usually has green, non-hollow stems and smaller leaves.
Why is it a problem?

Japanese, giant and Indian/Himalayan knotweed are perennial herbs forming thickets of tall shoots excluding all other plants.  They propagate from rhizomes (underground shoots) and Japanese knotweed also spreads via seeds.  Dislodged rhizome fragments can spread via floods and drain cleaning machinery enabling them to rapidly colonise new areas.  These plants are usually associated with wet river margins but can also cope with dry conditions.  They have the potential to narrow waterway channels, impede water flow leading to siltation, and impact on recreational values of waterways.

Control

As knotweed is managed as an Elimination pest in Canterbury Environment Canterbury will manage its control.  If you think you have found knotweed in Canterbury please contact us on 0800 324636.

Management programme

Knotweeds are declared pests in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Elimination Programme.

Goal

Reduce Knotweed infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members will let Environment Canterbury know if they find Knotweed in Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute Knotweed in Canterbury.  Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers and manage the control of Knotweed to meet the goal.

Nassella Tussock (Nassella trichotoma)

Nassella tussock is extremely adaptable and grows in a wide range of habitats.  It will displace other plant species. 

Nasella

Nasella

Nasella

Nasella

Nasella

Nasella
Background

Nassella tussock originates from South America. It was first reported in New Zealand in 1950 in the Waipara River bed in North Canterbury, but had probably been present in New Zealand for some time.  It was recognised as a serious pastoral weed during the 1940s and became subject to various control programmes and an Act of Parliament over proceeding decades.

In the 1950s nassella tussock became so prevalent and at such high densities in parts of Canterbury and Marlborough that farmers were forced off their land.  Through the efforts of a single purpose board, various councils and individual land occupiers, nassella tussock was contained to much lower and more manageable densities.

Today Nassella is reasonably widespread throughout New Zealand’s east coasts. The Marlborough and Canterbury regions are worst affected.

Identification

How to identify nassella tussock

  • Flower heads are purple and carried on slender stalks from October to December. They are erect when young and droop over leaves when mature.
  • Seeds are small, oval and purplish-brown with a bristle at the tip. Nassella tussock is most obvious to the untrained eye when flowers or seeds are present.
  • Leaves are bright green and upright in small plants, becoming duller and more drooping as plants mature. Leaf tips are whitish during winter. Leaves feel rough when rubbed from tip to base.
  • Roots are deep, fibrous and matted, making even small plants difficult to pull out. Stem bases are whitish and separate easily like shallots. When squeezed, the base feels very hard.

Where does it grow?

Nassella will grow almost anywhere. It prefers sunny, dry sites with poor vegetation cover and light soil but as the seed is so easily dispersed, expect to find it in any situation.

  • New factsheet
Why is it a problem?

Nassella tussock is extremely adaptable and grows in a wide range of habitats. It will displace other plant species. A mature nassella tussock can produce up to 120,000 seeds which are able to disperse over long distances.  Some nassella tussock seeds can remain in the soil for more than a decade.  Seeds can be wind and water borne, carried via animals, human beings (on clothing), on machinery and in agricultural seed.

Nassella tussock is unpalatable to stock.  If not controlled, shading caused by nassella’s drooping foliage and overgrazing of other species soon result in displacement of palatable pasture plants.

Nassella tussock is difficult to recognise and distinguish from other tussocks and sedges, both native and introduced. Nassella tussock is costly to eradicate. 

Control

Grubbing

Remove nassella by grubbing with a hand tool.  Remove all tillers of grubbed plants from the ground and shake off excess soil.  Un-grubbed tillers will continue to grow and plants with soil remaining can reattach to the ground and keep growing to produce seed.

Chemical

Chemical application can be useful for dense infestations.  Active ingredients registered for the control of nassella tussock include glyphosate (short termknock down) and sodium flupropanate (root-absorbed residual herbicide).  To find out more about chemical control and its suitability for your property contact your local biosecurity officer.  When using chemicals read the labels and follow instructions.  Check your chemical application will be complaint with your Regional Plan(s) (e.g., Land and Water Plan).

Methodology

Plan your nassella control work ahead of seeding time.

If your wanting to use a contractor book them in early to allow them plenty of time to finish before the compliance due date.  If you want to clarify what is an acceptable nassella control standard please call your local biosecurity officer to talk this through with you.

For best coverage of your property systematically walk your land in ‘beats’ to ensure through coverage.  On hillsides conduct contour beats 5-15m apart depending on the scrub cover and nassella density.

Related documents

Management programme
Nassella Tussock containment zoneCanterbury land occupiers are required to control nassella tussock annually before it seeds. All Nassella tussock plants need to be removed either
  • before the 30th of September every year if your land is OUTSIDE of the Nassella Tussock sustained control zone
  • or before the 31st of October every year if your land is INSIDE the Sustained control zo

Environment Canterbury ensures land occupiers meet their obligation to control Nassella tussock by the dates prescribed compliance dates.

Related documents

Moth Plant (Araujia sericifera)

 

Seedpod

Mothplant seedpod

Flowers

Mothplant flowers

Flowers

Moth plant flower

 

Background

There are eight known sites of moth plant in Canterbury encompassing a total of one hectare.

Identification
  • Rapid growing, evergreen, perennial climber
  • Leaves are opposite, up to 12cm long, thick and often with wavy margins
  • Leaves are dark green on top; underneath they are grey-green and covered in fine hairs Stems have fine hairs, fine hairs, and are flexible with milky sap (toxic!)
  • White, fragrant, bell-shaped flowers (December to May) can trap moths, butterflies and bees
  • Large, pear-shaped pods -shaped pods contain many silky, tufted seeds
Why is it a problem?

Moth plant climbs over shrubs and small trees, smothering and breaking them down.  It also spreads over the ground, smothering native plants of small stature and regenerating seedlings.  Both fruits and stems exude a caustic milky sap when broken.  This white latex is sticky, causes skin irritation in susceptible people and is poisonous to humans.  Moth plant can adversely impact environmental and conservation values.

Control

Protect skin when working with moth plant as it causes dermatitis when skin contacts its sap.

Mechanical

  • Remove all pods to reduce seed bank and dispose of at refuse transfer station, burn or bury deeply.
  • Pull up seedlings (all year round)

Chemical

  • Stump swab (best in summer-autumn) or Spray (summer-autumn) with an appropriate herbicide.
Management programme

Moth plant is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 and managed in the Eradication programme.

Goal

Reduce moth plant infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

No one may sell, propagate or distribute moth plant in New Zealand.  The community will make Environment Canterbury aware of any moth plants in Canterbury.  Environment Canterbury will work with affect landowners to meet the goal.

Old man's beard (Clematis vitalba)

Old man’s beard is a vigorous growing vine which forms a tangled smothering mass over trees and shrubs blocking out light and eventually killing supporting plants.

Flowers

Old Man's Beard

Fruit/Seed

Old Man's Beard

Leaf

Old Man's Beard
Background

Old man’s beard is a vigorous growing vine which forms a tangled smothering mass over trees and shrubs, blocking out light and eventually killing supporting plants.

One plant is capable of blanketing an area of 180 m2. It seeds profusely and the seed can remain viable in the soil for several years. Stems can provide up to 10 m of growth in a season.

Introduced from Europe as a decorative plant, old man’s beard has developed into a major weed problem particularly in the central regions of New Zealand.

Identification

Old man's beard is a deciduous vine - it sheds its leaves in winter.

Leaves

Vary from 50 mm to 150 mm in length.

  • Variable shapes: serrated, oval, heart-shaped or lance-shaped.
  • Stems opposite each other on vine.
  • 5 leaflets per stem.
  • Other clematis species generally have three leaflets.

Flowers

White/greenish to yellow/white in colour.

  • Approximately 2 cm diameter.
  • Generally in clusters.
  • December through to April.

Seeds

Sets seed around April.

  • Dispersed during autumn/winter period.
  • Have long plume-like tails which aid dispersal by wind or water.

Vines

Vines may grow to 15 cm in diameter or larger.

  • Young vines are ribbed and often purple in colour.
  • Older vines are woody, often grey/brown in colour.
  • Older vines flake when bent. 
Control

Vines climbing shrubs, trees and hedges:

  1. Search — and trace all vines back to ground level
  2. Clear — a small area around the base of the vines
  3. Cut — all vines as close to the ground as possible
  4. Treat — freshly cut stumps with an undiluted herbicide such as:
    • Glyphosate (Roundup, Network Glyphosate 360 etc.)
    • Woody Weed Killer
    • Vigilant
    • Banvine

    A small paint brush is a useful tool for painting stumps.When used incorrectly herbicides can be harmful. Follow the instructions on the container label.

  5. Finally — ensure that the hanging vines are clear of the ground so that they cannot take root. They may be left in the tree to break down.

Vines scrambling over the ground and large areas of old man’s beard:

Seek advice from a Biosecurity Officer at Christchurch, Timaru, Kaikoura, Cheviot, Amberley, Darfield or Little River.

Non-chemical control:

Will only succeed if all roots are dug out. When vines touch the ground they usually develop extra roots and all of these must be removed for control to be successful. Note: Just cutting the vines will result in rapid regrowth.

Check the site each spring for regrowth and new seedlings.

Related document

Management programme

Old man’s beard is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Plan 2018-2038 in the Sustained control programme.

Goal

Old man’s beard current plant numbers or density levels do not increase over the duration of the plan so adverse impacts on environmental values isminimised.

Responsibilities

As a Canterbury land occupier, you need to destroy old man’s beard infestations on your land that cover less than 100sqm in area.

You also need to make sure you are being a good neighbour and kill any plants that are within 20m of an adjoining property where that property is clear or being cleared of old man’s beard. This means, even if the infestation on your land is greater than 100sqm – if plants from that infestation are within 20m of your neighbour’s clear boundary, then you need to control this part of the infestation.

Old man’s beard is also managed under the Plans site-led programme.

GOAL

For each old man’s beard site, the extent of old man’s beard will be reduced by 75% by 2028.

Site-led programmes provide an opportunity for individuals or community groups to promote and create sites that they consider hold values of importance.  Sites managed under the site-led programmes may range in extent from small areas within a property to larger areas covering multiple properties.  The site's values can be threatened by individual or multiple organisms.  Therefore, pest management regimes specifically tailored to each site is necessary.  For in-depth information on site-led programmes read pgs 66-74 of Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038.

Ashley River 

Map 9.1 Ashley River Catchment-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Blue Duck Valley

Blue Duck valley Old Man's Beard containment zone

Cascade Road

Map 9.1 Cascade Road-Old Man's Beard containment zone

 

Dawbers Road

Map 9.1 Dawbers Road-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Governors Bay

Map 9.5 Governors Bay-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Kaituna Pass

Map 9.6 Kaituna Pass-Old Man's Beard containment zone

 

Medway Road

Map 9.7 Medway Road-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Oaro

Map 9.8 Oaro-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Puhi Puhi

Map 9.9 Puhi Puhi-Old Man's Beard containment zone

 

Stackouses Road

Map 9.10 Stackhouses Road-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Western Valley Road

Map 11 Western valley Rd-Old Man's Beard containment zone

Wiffens Road

Map 9.12 Wiffens road-Old Man's Beard containment zone

 

Related document

Phragmites (Phragmites australis)

 

Flowers

Phragmites leaves

Fruit/Seed

Phragmites 33

Leaf

Phragmites 33
Background

Phragmites originates from the United States and Europe.  The New Zealand nursery trade sold phragmites before it became an unwanted organism.  Phragmites is present in New Zealand in its variegated (green and white striped leaves) and non-variegated forms.  There may be plants in older gardens due to the historic nursery trade.  Phragmites grow in fresh water and tolerate slightly saline conditions as well as growing away from water.  Environment Canterbury undertakes control of all known phragmites sites.

Identification
  • Perennial grass that grows between 2 and 4 metres tall and dies back over winter
  • Leaf blades are flat, long and smooth, growing up to 60 centimetres long
  • Leaf margins are rough and leaf sheaths overlap
  • Stems are hollow
  • Grows dense dark purple feathery flower heads 20 to 50 centimetres long
  • Ligule (the membrane on the inside of the leaf, at the point where the blade leaves the stem) has a fringe of long hairs

Find out more about Phragmites:

Control

Phragmites is managed in the Eradication programme. Environment Canterbury will manage its control.  If you think you have found Phragmites in Canterbury contact us on 0800 324636.

Management programme

Management

Phragmites is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Eradication programme.  It is also listed as a species MPI aims to eradicate from New Zealand.  MPI and Environment Canterbury are liaising on Phragmites control within Canterbury.

Goal

Reduce Phragmites infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members will let Environment Canterbury know if they find Phragmites in Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute Phragmites in New Zealand. Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers and manage the control of Phragmites to meet the goal.

Puna grass (Achnatherum caudatum)

 

Puna Grass

Puna Grass spread across paddock

Puna Grass

Puna Grass leaves

Puna Grass

Puna Grass
Background

Puna grass is a pastoral and environmental weed.  It invades riparian and other non-grazed areas.  It loses palatability as it grows larger.  It is difficult to control once established.  Left to invade Puna grass would have the potential to decrease the profit margins of pastoral agriculture in Canterbury’s hill land high country.  It also causes adverse effects on environmental values in tussock landscapes and grasslands.  It has been recognised as a problem in Lucerne in Argentina and California reducing yield and interfering with mowing.

Identification
  • Tall tussock forming grass
  • Flower spikes to 1m tall
  • Leaves are narrow and long (1-3 mm wide; 70cm long)
  • Leaves have obvious ribs on the top and bottom surface
  • The margin of the leaf sheath (the part of the leaf that encloses the stem) has long hairs (2mm) towards the top (see photo)
  • The ligule (the membrane on the inside of the leaf at the point where the blade leaves the stem) is fringed with hairs. (see photo)
  • Flowers are purplish-brown with 1-2cm long bristles at the tips (similar to nassella tussock - see photo)
  • Seeds have long awns in large elongated seed-heads at the top of the plant
  • Seed is also produced and held within the leaf sheaths at the base of the plant. They are hard awnless ‘nut-like’ seed. (cleistogenes)
  • Fibrous root system
Why is it a problem?

Puna grass is a pastoral and environmental weed.  It invades riparian and other non-grazed areas.  It loses palatability as it grows larger.  It is difficult to control once established.  Left to invade Puna grass would have the potential to decrease the profit margins of pastoral agriculture in Canterbury’s hill land high country.  It also causes adverse effects on environmental values in tussock landscapes and grasslands.  It has been recognised as a problem in Lucerne in Argentina and California reducing yield and interfering with mowing.

Control

If you think you have found Puna grass contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with the location of sighting, any photos and your contact details. We will work with affected parties and organise control.

Management programme

Puna grass is listed as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan (2017-2038) ‘Progressive containment’ programme

Goal

Puna grass will be reduced by 10% in the Canterbury region by 2028.

We are aware of two sites within Canterbury totaling 60ha that has scattered puna grass plants within that area (as at May 2018).  The goal is in place to protect our region’s economic and environmental wellbeing from the possible negative effects of Puna grass if it was left to disperse further within our region (pg 40 region from RPMP 2017-2935).

Community members are responsible for reporting sightings of puna grass to Environment Canterbury.  Puna grass may not be sold, propagated, displayed, released, or spread within Canterbury.

Environment Canterbury will work in collaboration with affected parties to meet the goal by 2028.

Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Gardeners can play an important role in helping stamp out a potentially serious weed from the country’s damp spots and waterways.

Purple Loosestrife

Purple Loosestrife

Purple Loosestrife

Purple Loosestrife

Purple Loosestrife

Purple Loosestrife

 

Background

The Department of Conservation (DOC), Ngai Tahu, Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council have been working together since 2004 in an aim to eradicate purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) from Canterbury.  With the development of Canterbury’s new Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 the goal has changed from eradication to Sustained control

There are very few places in New Zealand so far where purple loosestrife is growing in the wild.  If no action is taken, this species has the potential to be as serious a problem as weeds like old man's beard, gorse and broom.

Purple loosestrife was historically sold as a garden plant.  However, it is now declared an unwanted organism in New Zealand and consequently is banned from sale, propagation or division.

Why is it a problem?

Purple loosestrife thrives in damp places, particularly river or lake margins, and can clog drains and irrigation ditches.  It also crowds out native plants, and changes habitat for wetland birds and fish.  It is one of the worst agricultural and environmental weeds in North America, invading large areas and displacing other plants and potentially it could do the same here.

Purple loosestrife can produce over 2 million seeds per plant per year and most seeds last at least 3 years.  Seeds are dispersed by water, but may also be spread by wind and birds and on machinery.   Because it has so many seeds, once established, purple loosestrife can quickly form a dense stand that excludes most other vegetation.

Identification
  • The plant can grow to 3 metres high with up to 50 stems per plant (usually square in cross-section).
  • It flowers from December to February with showy spikes of purple flowers at the end of the stems.
  • The leaves and stems die off in winter, to re-sprout in spring.
Control

Start control work at margins to prevent further seeding, and work downstream where possible.  Check the site at least two times in the growing season so you can control new plants as they emerge.

If you find purple loosestrife in Canterbury please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324636.

Non- chemical

  • Grubbing or digging out plants
  • Weedmat: Start at the top of the infestation, leave 3-4 months.
  • Lower water level if possible and mechanically remove
  • Raise water level if possible for 2-3 weeks to drown the weed.

Chemical

Care needs to be taken when applying chemical around waterways where this plant thrives.

Cut stump and chemical treatment: Cut the plant at the base close to the ground and immediately applying a suitable chemical to the fresh wound so it kills the roots.

Knapsack application of glyphosate (5ml/L) with suitable adjuvant around water ways. Terrestrial sites only: triclopyr 600 EC (30ml/10L) or triclopyr 120g/L (15ml/L). Respray until eliminated.

Management programme
Purple loosestrife is classified as a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2037 in the Sustained Control programme

Goal

The extent of Purple Loosestrife does not increase and biodiversity values on adjacent land are not adversely affected over the duration of the plan.

Responsibilities

Everyone shall ensure Purple loosestrife is not sold, propagated or distributed within New Zealand.

Environment Canterbury will monitor plant selling outlets to ensure Purple loosestrife is not sold in Canterbury.

Saffron thistle  (Carthamus lanatus)

 

Saffron Thistle

Saffron Thistle

Saffron Thistle Flower

Saffron Thistle

Saffron Thistle


Background

Saffron thistle infestations are limited to 13 active sites scattered across approximately 378 hectares, mainly north of the Rakaia River.

Identification
  • Up-right thistle that can grow up to 1 m tall.
  • Seeds germinate in autumn.
  • The leaves grow out from the centre to form a rosette.
  • In late spring/early summer, a single stem grows from the rosette. Over time, the rosette leaves disappear and the stem divides into many branches.
  • The glossy, dark green leaves have sharp tipped spines.
  • Yellow flowers with purplish veins appear from December to April (most other thistle species have pink/purple flowers).
Why is it a proplem?

Once established, saffron thistle can form dense stands, preventing stock movement. It can also compete with pasture species, reducing carrying capacity.  The sharp spines can cause injuries to the eyes and mouths of stock and get stuck in wool. Saffron thistle spreads easily. 

The large seeds can be carried by stock, water, vehicles and in dirt to other locations.  The whole plant can also break off at the base and be blown for long distances, further spreading seed. Seed can remain viable in the soil for up to 8 years.

Control
Avoid the introduction of saffron thistle Read our section on On farm biosecurity to see ways you can avoid saffron thistle (and other pest plants) arriving at your place.

Physical removal

  • Grubbing where the number of plants involved is small. Collect and burn the plants.
  • Slashing or cutting can be used to reduce maturing saffron thistle. The optimum time for slashing or cutting usually occurs around October to November.
  • If plants are cut before the stem is fully developed, they may regrow, cut after flowering has begun, a viable seed may still be produced on the cut stem.

Cultivation

  • Where cultivation is possible, a three years' program of establishing a competitive pasture or crop (wheat or barley) can induce germination and exhaust the reserve of thistle seed in the soil.
  • Any thistles which survive the cultivations should be sprayed with herbicide in the crop.

Chemical control

  • Talk to your local biosecurity officer on advice on what chemical would be suitable for controlling saffron thistle for your operation.
  • Saffron thistle can germinate from autumn through to late spring so delay spraying until late in the season to ensure all plants are found and treated, particularly for scattered and sparse infestations.
Management programme

Saffron thistle is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and is managed in the Sustained Control programme.

Goal

Saffron thistle will be controlled in Canterbury so current plant numbers or density levels do not increase minimising the negative effect on production values.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury with work with and educate affected land occupiers to ensure the goal is met for the duration of the plan.

Spartina (Spartina anglica)

Spartina Seeds

Spartina

Spartina 

Spartina

Spartina 

Spartina anglica plants - Calders Green

Background
Spartina is native to Britain. It grows in estuaries in the inter-tidal zone, and along the margin of the tidal reaches of rivers (e.g. Avon and Heathcote Rivers). It has also been found at the head of Lyttelton Harbour where it is being controlled.
Why is it a problem?

Dense stands of spartina exclude otherspecies, and increase sedimentation.  Eventually, spartina will take over the whole of the inter-tidal zone if left uncontrolled.  Spartina tolerates all weathers and temperatures, fire, grazing, and other damage.  Rhizomes spread slowly and broken fragments re-sprout easily. Livestock, propellers, nets and similar can dislodge rhizome fragments, which are then spread by tidal and current movement.  They also spread through intentional planting.  Spartina can survive long-term at sea, which means that it can travel long distances with the currents.

Spartina traps sediment, raising the level of the ground above the high tide mark and destroying the inter-tidal zone and habitat.  Other weedy grasses succeed spartina, creating dry 'meadows'.  It can reduce large estuaries and shallow harbours to thin drains surrounded by rough pasture, adversely affecting environmental values, resulting in an immense loss of biodiversity.

Identification
  • Perennial, clump-forming grass to 1 m tall with rhizomes and fibrous roots.
  • Erect stems (4-9 mm diameter) with many brownish leaf sheaths.
  • Alternate leaves (5-45 by 4-15 mm) are deeply wide-ribbed on upper surface and have ligules with a dense fringe of hairs (1-3 mm long).
  • Seed heads are occasionally seen, and seed is occasionally produced at some sites.
Control

Environment Canterbury, The Department of Conservation and Christchurch City Council are working collaboratively in controlling Spartina in its known locations.

Please do not undertake control yourself. If you think you have found spartina please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 with your sightings details. We will work with our partnering agencies to ensure any positive sightings are included in our annual control programme.

Management programme
Spartina is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and is managed as a site-led management program

Goal

Each site (refer maps) of spartina will be reduced by 50% by 2028.

Responsibilities

The Department of Conservation is the lead agency for the interagency spartina response.

Avon Heathcote Estuary

Spatina containment zone Avon Heathcote Estuary

Brooklands Lagoon

 

Spatina containment zone Brooklands lagoon

Lyttleton Harbour

 

Spatina containment zone Lyttleton Harbour

 

Wilding conifers (Wilding conifers+, Pinus contorta, P. nigra, P. sylvestris, P, uncinata, P, mugo and Larix decidua)

Wilding conifers are species listed in the table below.  They are plants that have established by natural means, unless it is located within a forest plantation, and does not create any greater risk of wilding conifer spread to adjacent or nearby land than the forest plantation that it is a part of.

For the purposes of this definition, a forest plantation is an area of 1 hectare or more of predominantly planted trees.

 

Common name Scientific name
Bishops pine Pinus muricata
Contorta (Lodgepole) pine Pinus contorta
Corsican pine Pinus nigra
Douglas fir  Pseudotsuga menziesii
European larch Larix decidua
Maritime pine Pinus pinaster
Mountain Pine and dwarf mountain Pine Pinus mugo and P.uncinata
Ponderosa pine Pinus gonderosa
Radiata Pine Pinus radiata
Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris

Wilding Conifer

Wilding Conifer

Wilding Conifer Cones

Wilding Conifer

Wilding Conifer

Wilding Conifer

 

Background
Environment Canterbury has been carrying out wilding conifer control for over a decade.

They have established themselves by natural means from plantations, shelterbelts and scientific experiments over many decades.

Operational areas for Canterbury

  • Kakanui St Mary / Ida
  • Godley
  • Four Peaks
  • Hakatere A and Extension
  • Porters
  • Craigieburn
  • Lewis
  • Ohau
  • Tekapo East
  • Tekapo West 
Why are they a problem?
Wilding conifers have significant impacts on Canterbury’s native ecosystems, particularly those with low-stature vegetation.  Wilding conifers grow faster and taller than low-stature native plants shading them out and changing those plant communities.  Where there is dense wilding conifer growth, this can lead to local extinction of these native plant communities, the drying of wetlands and riparian areas, and resulting impacts on native fauna through the loss of habitat. Soilandsoilfaunaare also altered when wilding conifers replace native ecosystems.

Most wilding conifer species do not pose a significant threat to established native forests, however, the higher shade tolerant conifer, Douglas fir, can spread into shrublands, regenerating native forest and mature forest where there are canopy gaps and a relatively sparse understory.

Wilding conifers can adversely affect amenity and landscape values, particularly where the valued landscapes are characterised by extensive low-stature vegetation such as our high-country tussock grasslands.  Our tussock grasslands are important for tourism and large-scale landscape changes could impact on this.  Dense wilding conifer spread can lead to the blocking and/or changing of valued views and vistas and can impede access to, and enjoyment of, recreational areas. In areas where Canterbury has long-term, seasonal soil moisture deficits, dense wilding conifers can contribute to reductions in surface water flows, potentially impacting on water availability and aquatic ecosystems.  Wilding conifers can also increase the risk posed by wildfires. All the negative impacts outlined above can adversely affect Ngāi Tahu values for culturally important landscapes, sites and landforms; impacts on mahinga kai; and impacts on the mauri of streams and wetlands.

In areas of extensive pastoral farming, wilding conifer infestations adversely impact economic well-being by reducing available grazing land and limiting future land use options due to the high costs of control.

Control
Remove seed-producing trees and isolated scattered plants first. Pull small seedlings out by the roots.  Cut bigger trees near ground level and either apply herbicide to the cut stump or ensure all green needles are removed. 

After initial control, follow-up checking of the area for new re-growth will be required for several years. Use all herbicides in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and ensure no herbicide comes into contact with other plants, the soil or waterways.

Check the New Zealand Wilding Conifer Management Group website for more information about lodgepole pine, other wilding conifers and how to control them.

Related document

Management programme
Wilding Conifers contaminant zone mapWilding pines are classified as pests in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and are in the Progressive containment programme.

Goal

Contain and reduce the geographic distribution or extent of wilding conifers, (contorta, corsican, scots, mountain and dwarf mountain pines and larch) within Canterbury. Nine hundred thousand (900,000) hectares of Canterbury land will be cleared of wilding conifers by 2028.

Responsibilities

Land occupiers within the Wilding Conifer Containment Area need to destroy all wilding conifers present on their land prior to cone bearing,

IF

  1. The wilding conifers, contorta, corsican, scotts, mountain and dwarf mountain pines and larch are located on land where control operations to clear wilding conifers have been undertaken; AND
  2. The control operations were publicly funded (either in full or in part). (Plan Rule 6.3.1)

Land occupiers in the wilding conifer containment area are also responsible for being a good neighbour (Plan Rule 6.3.2).  To meet this requirement, you need to ensure all wilding conifers, contorta, Corsican, Scots, mountain and dwarf mountain pines and larch present on your land within 200m of an adjoining property boundary is controlled prior to cone bearing, IF control operations to clear wilding conifers have been undertaken on the adjoining property, within 200m of the boundary, since the commencement of the Plan.

No one may sell, propagate or distribute wilding pines or the conifer species declared pests in Canterbury within Canterbury.

Environment Canterbury is responsible for managing the wilding pine progressive containment programme in Canterbury and ensuring land occupiers meet their obligations. We will work within the National Wilding Conifer Control Programme – a collaborative funding model for wilding conifer control.

Related document

Wild Russell Lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus)

 

Flower

Wild Russell Lupin

Hairy Stems

Wild Russell Lupin

Wild Russell Lupin

Wild Russell Lupin
Background
Wild Russell Lupin tolerates warm and cold weather, wind, flooding, drought, fire and low fertility.  It grows quickly and produces many well-dispersed, long-living seeds.  It rapidly invades braided river systems to form dense stands.  These self-perpetuating dense stands cause a range of negative effects including:
  • invading native bird breeding habitats;
  • providing hiding places for predators of endangered birds that would usually nest on bare shingle islands;
  • trapping silt, sand and gravel, altering the river’s shape, which interferes with water flow contributing to flooding and erosion; and
  • increasing the soil’s nitrogen levels making it less habitable for native low fertility species and enabling other weed species to invade.
Why are they a problem?
Russell lupin rapidly invades shingly braided river systems and provides hiding places for predators of the (often endangered) birds that would usually nest safely on these bare islands.  The dense infestations also interfere with water flow along these rivers, changing the ecosystem for the birds that live there. It produces large amounts of seed that are spread mainly by water, and also by humans distributing them along roadsides.
* Information from Weedbuster.org.nz
Identification
  • Perennial herb (to 1+ m) with erect,
  • hairy stems that branch from the base.
  • Clusters of 8-15 leaflets (3-13 x 1-3 cm) that are usually hairless above and silky below.
  • Produces an erect flowerhead spike (15-60 cm long) bearing many slightly scented, pea-like blue, purple, orange, yellow, pink or white flowers (12-20 mm) from September to February.
  • Straight seed pods (3-5cm) containing mottled dark brown seeds are covered in dense, soft hairs.
Control
All year round
  • Hand pull or dig small plants (all year round). Leave on site to rot down.
  • Weed wipe with metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L) or triclopyr 600g/L (200ml/L) or glyphosate (330ml/L). Add penetrant to all herbicide mixtures.
  • Cut plant close to ground then to freshly cut stump apply triclopyr 600 g/L (100ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600 g/kg (1g/L) or glyphosate (200ml/L)

Active growing period

  • Spray with clopyralid (35ml/10L) or triclopyr 600 g/L (15ml/10L).

Find out more at www.weedbusters.org.nz.

Related document

Management programme

Management 

Wild Russell lupin is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 and is managed in the Sustained Control programme.

Goal

Over the duration of the plan Wild Russell lupin will be controlled within specified distances from waterways to prevent its establishment and prevent adverse effects on Canterbury’s environmental values.

Responsibilities

Rurally zoned land occupiers may not plant Russell lupin

  • 200m from the edge of the active channel of a braided river
  • 50m from any non-braided river
  • 10m from any artificial watercourse
  • 10m from an adjoining property boundary

Rurally zoned land occupiers need to eliminate all wild Russell lupin within

  • 200m from the edge of the active channel of a braided river
  • 50m from any non-braided river
  • 10m from any artificial watercourse
  • 10m from an adjoining property boundary

Environment Canterbury will work with rurally zoned land occupiers to ensure the goal is achieved.

Related document

White edged knight-shade (Solanum marginatum)

White Edged Knight-shade

White Edged Nightshade

White Edged Knight-shade

White Edged Nightshade

White Edged Knight-shade White Edged Nightshade

 

Background
White-edged nightshade can be found growing in forest margins, along road-sides, in scrub, waste places and on pasture land. It is confined to five sites on Banks Peninsula scattered across 259 hectares.
Identification
  • Quick growing perennial shrub that can grow up to 5 metres tall.
  • Large woody stems and green oak-shaped leaves covered in nasty sharp spines.
  • Leaves have white veins on the upper surface and dense chalky-white hairs on the underside.
  • In summer white or pale mauve flowers (that look like potato flowers) bloom in clusters at the end of branches.
  • Green-yellow tomato-shaped berries grow on the ends of prickly stalks.
Why is it a problem?
This nasty prickly plant can form dense thickets, potentially displacing pasture and native species. It is well adapted to dry areas. Once established, it forms dense thickets that are impenetrable to stock. It also prevents the establishment of native understory on margins of native bush. White edged nightshade adversely affects economic well-being and environmental values. It is also regarded as a threat to marginal coastal areas.
Control
If you think you have found white edged knightshade outside of the site-led programme areas please contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636 or email biosecurity@ecan.govt.nz with details of your sightings
Management programme
White edged knightshade is declared a pest in Canterbury’s regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and is managed as a site-led management programme.
White edged knight-shade containment zone
Wild Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

 

Wild Thyme

Wild Thyme

Wild Thyme

Wild Thyme

Wild Thyme Flower

Wild Thyme

 

Background
Wild thyme was first introduced into New Zealand as a culinary herb.  It has become widespread in the Otago Region, and occurs in the wild at two sites in Canterbury – in the upper Rangitata River and near Loburn in North Canterbury. Wild thyme has, in the past, spread to the Lindis Pass area, but is no longer known to be present in this area.  The plant prefers dry stony soils, slopes, screes and terraces, and in Otago favours rabbit-disturbed sites.
Why are they a problem?
Wild thyme is very tolerant of both dry and cold conditions and is unpalatable to stock.  In these situations, it can form large dense patches, covering hillsides.  It can exclude native vegetation and in turn becomes the dominant scrub cover.
Wild thyme is a prolific seeder.  Seeds are primarily dispersed by gravity, soil movement and people
Identification
  • A small, bushy shrub that can grow up to 30 cm tall.
  • Mauve or white flowers are arranged in whorls on the upper stems.
  • Flowering occurs from September to December.
  • The narrow, green, hairy leaves are attached to a square, semi-woody stems.
  • When crushed, the leaves produce a strong, pleasant smell.
Control

Mechanically

Grub out plants when in low numbers

Chemical

10g metsulphuron/10L nap sack
Check your chemical application will be compliant with your Regional Plan(s) (e.g., Land and Water Plan).
Management programme

Wild thyme is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2017-2038 and managed in the site-led program.

Goal

Wild thyme is reduced by 50% at each site in the maps below by 2028.

Responsibilities

Environment Canterbury will take a lead role and work with affected land occupiers in meeting the goal for Wild thyme at each site.
Environment Canterbury will monitor Canterbury plant sale operations to make sure Wild thyme is not being sold, propagated or distributed in the region.

Horseford Downs

Wild Thyme containment zone Horseford Downs

Milne Loburn

Wild Thyme containment zone Milne Loburn

Ravensdown

Wild Thyme containment zone Ravensdown

 

Yellow bristle grass (Setaria pumila)

 

Yellow bristle grass #1

Yellow bristles grass

Seedhead

Yellow bristles grass seedhead

Yellow bristle grass #3

Yellow bristles grass
Background

There are two known sites in Canterbury encompassing 0.01 hectares.  Yellow bristle grass is widespread in Europe, parts of Africa, throughout the USA and in eastern Australia.  In the North Island it is present along many roadsides and started ‘jumping the fence’ over the past 15 years to become a major problem on farms.

Identification
  • An upright annual grass growing 25–45 cm high
  • The seed head is a cylindrical spike, between 2.5-10cm long, and becomes a golden brown colour once mature.
  • Leaves are yellow-green in colour and usually red or purple at the base.
  • Leaves are flat, hairless, soft and twisted.
  • The leaf sheath is flattened.
  • There are no ears (auricles) at the junction of the leaf blade and sheath.
  • The ligule consists of a fringe of hairs 0.5–1.5 mm long.
Why is it a problem?

Yellow bristle grass spreads rapidly through pasture reducing pasture quality in late summer and autumn.  Cows tend to avoid grazing it when it’s in seed leading to low pasture utilisation.  A lack of grazing leads to optimal seeding for the plant.  Being an annual species when it dies off this leads to an open pasture resulting in re-infestation and ingress of other weeds.  Where it does get grazed it will pass through the rumen and spread further afield via dung.  Farms that have on average 13% total dry matter in Yellow bristle grass are estimated to have an extra cost of $343/ha/year1 for supplementary bailage to maintain milk production.

Control

As yellow bristle grass is an Elimination programme pest Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers to arrange the best control technique for the situation the infestation is in.

Management programme

Yellow bristle grass is declared a pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Elimination programme.

Goal

Reduce yellow bristle grass infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members are to let Environment Canterbury know if they find yellow bristle grass in Canterbury.  No one may sell, propagate or distribute yellow bristle grass in Canterbury.  Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers to achieve the goal.

Yellow water lily (Nuphar lutea)

 Yellow water lily

 

Background

Yellow water lily entered New Zealand from South America.  There is one known site in Canterbury that extends over six-hectares.  This plant causes adverse impacts to environmental and recreational values.

Identification
  • Yellow water lily is an aquatic plant growing from large, long, spongy rhizomes (up to 10 centimetres thick),
  • Large (up to 40 centimetres by 30 centimetres), oval, heart-shaped, waxy, floating leaves
  • Thin, lettuce-like submerged leaves.
  • Golden yellow buttercup-like flower with 6 petals (up to 6 centimetres across) held above the water on a stalk.
  • Flowers smell like alcohol and smaller than flowers of other waterlilies.
  • Green, flask-shaped fruit (2-3 centimetres long) splits open to release seeds.
Why is it  a problem?

Yellow water lily is very adaptable and can survive droughts.  It tends to grow in till or slow flowing water less than 2m deep.  Water lily propagates from rhizomes and seeds.  It spreads via seeds or stem fragments carried by water, boats, fishing gear or machinery.  It rapidly invades shallow drains, ponds and lakes.  Dense mats of leaves covering the surface of waterways can cause die-off of submerged native water plants, excessive water loss from ponds and oxygen deprivation.  Mats of the plant reduce recreational values of waterways and impede water flow leading to siltation.

Control

As Yellow water lily is an Eradication Pest Environment Canterbury will manage its control and work with affected land occupiers. If you think you have found yellow water lily contact Environment Canterbury on 0800 324 636.

Management programme

Yellow water lily is a declared pest in Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan 2018-2038 in the Eradication programme.

Goal

Reduce Yellow water lily infestations to zero levels within Canterbury by 2028.

Responsibilities

Community members are to let Environment Canterbury know if they have found yellow water lily in Canterbury. No one may sell, propagate or distribute yellow water lily in New Zealand.  Environment Canterbury will work with affected land occupiers and manage its control to meet the goal.

Other species of interest

Those species listed in the Canterbury RPMP under this category are not declared as pests. We are monitoring these ‘organisms of interest’ to gain a picture of their presence and distribution in the region. Monitoring these species will support informed decision-making about future pest management.

It is important to note that some of the species in Canterbury’s 'organisms of interest' list may have an ‘unwanted organism status’, which can be checked on Ministry for Primary Industry’s website. A species that has an unwanted organism status means that you are not allowed to sell, propagate, transport or communicate that species within New Zealand.

There is room within Canterbury’s Regional Pest Management Plan to consider other ‘unwanted organisms’ not already on the ‘other organisms of interest’ list as candidates to control under future site-led programmes.

Table of other species of interest

Common name Scientific name
Ash Fraxinus excelsior
Barberry Berberis glaucocarpa
Bathurst bur Xanthium spinosum
Beggars tick   Bidens frondosa
Bermuda buttercup Oxalis pes-caprae
Blackberry (wild aggregates) Rubus fruticosus agg.
Boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum
Buddleja Buddleja davidii (excluding hybrids)
Burdock Arctium minus
Canary reed grass Phalaris arundinacea
Cape honey flower Melianthus major
Cape ivy   Senecio angulatus
Carex*  Carex pendula 
Chilean flame creeper  Tropaeolum speciosum
 Chilean glory vine*  Eccremocarpus scaber
 Chilean mayten* Maytenus boaria 
Common polypody   Polypodium vulgare
False tamarisk  Myricaria germanica 
German ivy  Senecio mikanioides 
Goat’s rue   Galega officinalis
 Hawthorn  Crataegus monogyna
Hemlock  Conium maculatum 
Hieracium  Hieracium spp.
Himalayan balsam   Impatiens glandulifera
Himalayan honeysuckle Leycesteria formosa 
Holly  Ilex aquifolium 
 Horsetail  Equisetum hyemale
Horehound   Marrubium vulgare
Mistflower  Ageratina riparia 
Nardoo   Marsilea mutica
Parrots feather  Myriophyllum demersum 
Perrenial nettle  Urtica dioica 
Pig’s ear Cotyledon orbiculata 
Plectranthus* Plectranthus grandis
Plumeless thistle Carduus acanthoides
Privet Ligustrum sinense
Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
Red-flowering currant Ribes sanguineum
Rowan Sorbus aucuparia
Rum cherry  Prunus serotine 
Sagittaria platyphylla  Sagittaria platyphylla 
Senegal tea  Gymnocoronis spilanthoides 
Sheeps bur  Acaena agnipila 
 Silver birch Betula pendula 
 Spanish heath Erica lusitanica 
Spur valerian  Centranthus ruber 
 Spurge laurel Daphne laureola 
St Johns Wort Hypericum perforatum 
 Sweet briar  Rosa rubiginosa
Sweet reed grass   Glyceria maxima 
Sycamore  Acer pseudoplatanus 
Tree Lucerne Chamaecytisus palmensis / Cytisus proliferus 
Tree lupin  Lupinus arboreus 
 Variegated thistle Silybum marianum 
Vipers bugloss Echium vulgare 
Wild cotoneaster  Cotoneaster glaucophyllus, C. franchetii
Wild elaeagnus   Elaeagnus x reflexa

* Unwanted organism

Note¹: The above species are not declared pests under this Plan and occupiers or other persons will not be subject to any obligations under the Plan or under the Act.  However, those above that have unwanted organism status are subject to statutory obligations already in place under the Act (section 52 and section 53) that prevent the sale, propagation and distribution of unwanted organisms by any person.

Note²: All organisms with ‘unwanted species’ status, including those not listed above but contained in the Unwanted Organism Register administered by Ministry for Primary Industries (see www.mpi.govt.nz) may be considered as other species of interest and could be candidates for control under future site-led programmes.