New approach and the community helps identify Bromley odour issues

A pilot study of a new approach to investigating ongoing problem odours in Bromley identified two sources, enabling action to be taken.

Environment Canterbury, with the support of the Christchurch City Council and the Bromley community, carried out a pilot study in March 2020. It saw residents reporting odour via a 'Smelt-it' reporting app, with reports then cross-referenced with weather conditions and onsite observations.

Environment Canterbury Operations Director Nadeine Dommisse said the study identified Christchurch City Council-run facilities Living Earth and EcoDrop as significant odour emitters. The two councils had worked closely throughout the study, and Christchurch City Council had welcomed the findings. Both councils would work together to address any problems related to these two public facilities as quickly as possible.

"We know this has been an issue for Bromley residents for a long time and it hasn't been an easy one to resolve. Tracing odour is a complex issue and the usual methods councils use to track odour simply didn't work in Bromley. The variables involved include the number of potential sources, wind, weather, temperature, timing, distance, topography, and sometimes even a combination of odours, all making it difficult to pin down what residents were describing, and where an odour might be coming from," she said.

"Over the last few years we've systematically worked through a process, talking to residents, mapping odour-emitting businesses and other work, which has culminated in the pilot study."

New data-gathering approach

Dommisse said the pilot study took a new approach, using reports from the community via a mobile app, and an independent odour assessor. Those reports were compared to wind and weather information and site operational data provided by the Christchurch City Council.

"These three datastreams enabled us to bring together odour reports, the physical impact on residents and the likely location at the same time. It's given us a compelling picture we've not had before, and a new way to investigate these sorts of issues. We're very grateful to the Bromley community and the Christchurch City Council for their support. Together we've been able to develop the information we need to finally make a difference."

Collaborative plan to address odours

Dommisse said Environment Canterbury will work closely with the Christchurch City Council to progressively address the issue with Living Earth and EcoDrop. Environment Canterbury will continue to work with other odour emitting businesses in Bromley and further investigate the possibility that some odours were combining to create a worse one.

"The Bromley community remain a vital part of the solution. We need them to continue to report odours so we can tell if progress in reducing odours is being made or not.

"A collaborative approach will produce faster results for affected residents. We can now better identify where problems can occur in certain conditions, potential emitters, and address them. While we have identified the Christchurch City Council-run facilities as being significant emitters, we will also be working with other odour-emitting businesses in Bromley to ensure they are managing odour appropriately."

Beyond the pilot

Christchurch City Council Head of Three Waters and Waste, Helen Beaumont, said the Council welcomed the pilot study findings.

"Environment Canterbury's pilot study findings are an important step in determining what's causing the offensive odours in some parts of Bromley. The study indicates the EcoDrop transfer station and the Living Earth composting plant facilities are significant contributors to the odour issue.

"We appreciate our community will want action and we'll be working with Environment Canterbury to determine what immediate actions, other investigations or further information might be needed to address the issue. We'll also be taking a proactive approach working with Living Earth and EcoDrop to share technology, best practices and initiatives to help further improve our processes."

Adaptive Management Plan to mitigate odour

Following the announcement of the pilot study results on 21 May, on 19 June Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council agreed on an Adaptive Management Plan to progressively address odour issues from Living Earth and EcoDrop.

The Adaptive Management Plan (PDF File, 4MB) is an action plan outlining potential short, medium and long-term options to mitigate odour. The plan will be in place for three months, while Living Earth and EcoDrop work to address odour issues. It is important to note that the plan is adaptive - additional mitigations can be required if efforts to reduce odour are not effective.

While we expect to see a progressive reduction in odour over the three month period, we encourage residents to continue to report odour via the Smelt-it app. Reporting odour will help in monitoring progress, and the effectiveness of any methods used.

Adaptive Management Plan updates

Update 3: 11 September 2020

The following information covers the reporting period from 1 August to 31 August 2020:

Further information is available at
Update 2: 7 August 2020

The following information covers the reporting period from 1 July to 31 July 2020:

Further information is available at

Update 1: 13 July 2020
On 19 May 2020, Environment Canterbury and Christchurch City (CCC) agreed to an Adaptive Management Plan to address long standing odour issues in Bromley.
As part of the plan, regular monthly reviews on progress on monitoring and odour mitigation are to occur on 7 July, 4 August and 8 September 2020.
The information below covers the reporting period from 1 June to 30 June 2020. Further information is available at

An independent odour specialist undertook assessments in the Bromley area in March and June to provide an impartial, outside perspective. The reports:

Further updates

Bromley Update - May 2021

You can find the latest report on locations of odours, how odour is reported to us and amenity impacts:

Bromley Update - March 2021

You can find the latest report on locations of odours, how odour is reported to us and amenity impacts:

Bromley Update - February 2021

You can find the latest report on locations of odours, how odour is reported to us and amenity impacts:

Bromley Update - January 2021

An Abatement Notice was served in consultation with Christchurch City Council under section 322(1) (a) (i) of the Resource Management Act 1991 in respect of discharge of offensive and objectionable odour at Living Earth.

The notice holds the Council to timeframes for upgrade of the Organics Processing Plant, requiring the discharge of "offensive and objectionable odour" beyond the boundaries of plant to stop by 31 January 2022.

You can find the latest report on locations of odours, how odour is reported to us and amenity impacts:

Bromley Update - December 2020

You can find the latest report on locations of odours, how odour is reported to us and amenity impacts:

Bromley Update - November 2020

In November, Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council commissioned independent research into air quality in Bromley.

The research sought to gather views representative of the Bromley community, ensure the community had the opportunity to be heard, and enable more informed decision making.

The research saw 2400 properties in Bromley surveyed, either in person, or if not in person, via a coded postcard enabling residents to complete the survey online or by calling the research company.

Bromley Update - October 2020

We continue to monitor odour in Bromley, and encourage the community to continue to report odour that may be objectionable or offensive.

The latest reports:

Bromley Update - September 2020

Following the Adaptive Management Plan (AMP) process that was in place from June to August aimed at addressing odour issues from EcoDrop and Living Earth, Environment Canterbury has advised the Christchurch City Council (CCC) that we would resume our normal regulatory approach from Wednesday 21 September 2020.

This means Environment Canterbury will stop issuing AMP notifications and will resume issuing Notices of Non-Compliance for each substantiated case of offensive odour discharge. We will continue our intensive monitoring program with a view to issuing monthly Compliance Monitoring Reports covering any Notices of Non-Compliance that may be issued.

The community can support that activity by continuing to report odour via the Smelt-It app.

The mitigation actions implemented by EcoDrop during June to August resulted in no further substantiated cases of offensive odour discharges since June, and Environment Canterbury has confirmed EcoDrop can continue to operate under the existing permitted activity rule.

The number of substantiated offensive odour discharges from Living Earth continued to rise from six in June to seven in July and then 11 in August. It is worth noting that there have been a further five substantiated cases in the first two weeks of September.

We do acknowledge that CCC and Living Earth are continuing to implement mitigation measures to fix the odour issues and the effectiveness of these measures will inform any decision on future action.

As previously mentioned Living Earth has selected a preferred new ‘recipe’ for making compost, however, it takes about:

  • 12-weeks for material to go through the composting process,
  • two-weeks in sealed tunnels; and
  • a further 10-weeks in outside windrows for maturation.

Following this time compost is screened and ready for sale. CCC believes it is making progress with a new compost recipe that will emit considerably less potentially odorous gases than the old compost recipe. We anticipate we will have a good understanding of the impact the new 'recipe' will have on the odour profile in Bromley towards the end of October 2020.

In resuming the normal regulatory approach, we will evaluate what enforcement action we may take in relation to any incidents of non-compliance, but we have advised the CCC that we will be collecting evidence which may be used in any future enforcement action. We will be keeping the CCC informed of our intended steps.

We are intending to run a drop-in event where community members can raise concerns, have questions answered, and hear from Council and industry representatives during the next month.

Find out more

Watch our summary video about the pilot study and new approach to odour management in Bromley (4:28).

See the full findings, and next steps, in our video on the background of the Bromley odour management study; the pilot outcomes and action plan for the next three months (12:20).

Got questions?

Learn more about the pilot and using Smelt-it with our frequently asked questions:

Pilot overview

What was the pilot study about?
We know odour is a serious concern for people living in Bromley. Traditional ways of responding to odour reports from the community haven't been effective.
The pilot study used odour reports from the community via a mobile app and compared them with wind and weather data and business operational information. This built a comprehensive picture of what was occurring on particular days and provided the information needed to inform changes that should improve the situation. The information generated is far more detailed and of far greater quality than has previously been available. It brings together three streams of data to better understand odour, source and impact, which we had not been able to do before.
This information will inform decisions to better manage odour and reduce instances of odour reaching beyond business boundaries, and improve the situation for residents.
Is this work going to make these smells go away?
Having more data from the community and businesses will increase the chances of finding the source(s) of odour and inform decisions of the management of it.
We cannot guarantee the odours will be eliminated entirely, but we should reduce instances of odour reaching beyond odour-emitting business boundaries. Environment Canterbury will continue to monitor the situation and will review progress. Continued reports from the community via the Smelt-it app, will be a vital part of monitoring progress.
When was the pilot?
The pilot study occurred during March 2020. We asked the public to use the Smelt-it reporting app as much as possible (including evenings and weekends), and at the same time, we will worked with businesses to get better information about their operational activity; prioritised staff resource to respond to Bromley odour reports we received via Smelt-it and our other incident reporting channels, and monitored weather data and wind patterns.
Data interpretation took place during April. This work confirmed that Living Earth and EcoDrop were significant odour emitters in Bromley. There are other business which also emit odour.
We will be working with all these businesses to help them better manage odour emissions and continue to respond to reported incidents. Smelt-it will remain available as a reporting tool.
What did Environment Canterbury do differently during the pilot?
The pilot study gathered more comprehensive community feedback and other data than had previously been gathered. Using an app to support community reporting and new technology to track real time data brought together three independent data sources – community reports, operational information and environmental data at the same time.
We prioritised staff resource to Bromley odour reports to support the pilot study and corroborate what the community was reporting – in normal circumstances, officers might be prioritised elsewhere when a report was made.
An independent odour specialist also undertook assessments during the pilot period to provide an impartial, outside perspective.
Who was involved?
We encouraged anyone working in, living in, or visiting Bromley to get involved and report any odour they noticed via the Smelt-it app.
I own / manage a business in the area, how does this impact me?
Part of this pilot is looking at a new way of working with businesses in the area that have previously been, or will be, identified as potential odour emitting sites.
We want to encourage better information sharing to identify possible causes of odours and reduce them.
I don't live in or near Bromley, but I have noticed odour problems, what should I do?
Please call 0800 765 588 (24 hours) to report any environmental incident.
What happened at the end of the pilot?
We analysed the feedback from Smelt -it and other data and information gathered and reported back to the community. We updated the community via mailing list developed from those who chose to sign up via the Smelt-it app.
Now that the pilot has finished, do I still use Smelt-it to report odours?=
Yes, Smelt-it will remain available as a tool for reporting odour, and the community is encouraged to continue to use it to report odour.
It has been designed as a quicker and easier way to notify us of odours.
I want to talk with someone in more detail
You can call us on 0800 324 636 and ask to talk to someone about the Bromley odour pilot.

Using Smelt-it

How do I access Smelt-it?
Head to and complete the form.
I'm having trouble entering the address into Smelt-it, what do I do?
We recommend you enter the closest address to where you are standing when you experience the odour (Smelt-it needs an address entered so that the data we are getting is as informative as possible).
I only notice the smell at the weekend, should I still log it in Smelt-it?
I work in Bromley but don't live there, can I use Smelt-it?
Yes, if you work in the Bromley area and notice an odour during the day, please report it using Smelt-it.
Why can't I input what I think the source of the odour is into Smelt-it?

We need to know where you were when you notice the odour and at what time.

We will then use wind direction and dispersion models to narrow down potential sources using a scientific approach.

It's important that we test the community's experience against scientific data to narrow down the potential sources.
Historical reports from the community to us show that people have different views and opinions on where the odour might be coming from. It is important during the trial we keep an open mind.
Will I receive a call or some sort of confirmation after I log a Smelt-it?
If you log a Smelt-it notification, you will only receive a phone call from us if we require further information (and then only if you've provided your details).
I am experiencing issues using Smelt-it, what do I do?

Please see the FAQ on the Smelt-it tool for information.

Alternatively, you can call 0800 324 636 and talk to one of the team for help.

I don't have a mobile, how can I be involved?

You can also use Smelt-it on a tablet or desktop computer.

If you need assistance, call us on 0800 324 636 and we can help.

You can also continue to report odours via our incident response line on 0800 765 588.


Why is odour such an issue in Bromley?
The Bromley area is home to a mix of industries, including fish and seafood processing, fibre glass manufacturing, scrap metal recycling and many of the city's essential services such as the wastewater treatment plant, composting facility and Metro transfer station.
There is also the Ihutai/Avon-Heathcote Estuary which can emit odour under certain environmental conditions.
Odour can come and go and often changes direction and intensity quickly with wind and other weather patterns, generally making it extremely difficult to pinpoint the source.
What is Environment Canterbury's role regarding odour?
We are responsible for regulating discharges to air under the Resource Management Act and the Canterbury Air Regional Plan.
We are also responsible for responding to reports of odour from the community.
What are acute and chronic odours?
An acute odour is one that is very smelly for a short period of time – high in intensity, but low in frequency. It is offensive and objectionable, but short-lived and isolated.
These types of odours are typically easier to evidentially prove.
A chronic odour may not be as smelly but may happen regularly i.e. daily or weekly – low in intensity, but high in frequency.
If this type of odour is experienced on an isolated basis, it would not be considered offensive and objectionable.
However, over a long period of time, the odour can become offensive and objectionable.
A chronic odour is evidentially harder to prove as a history of non-compliance would be required.
Traditionally, our response has been focused on acute odours, but we've realised we need to address the ongoing chronic odours which really impact on the residents.
Why do you refer to "offensive and objectionable" odours?
Ministry for the Environment guidelines state that offensive is defined as "giving or meant to give offence; disgusting, foul-smelling, nauseous, repulsive".
Objectionable is defined as "open to objection, unpleasant, offensive".
The Canterbury Air Regional Plan states the odour shall not cause offensive and objectionable effect beyond the property boundary.
Are there any health impacts associated with these odours?
Canterbury District Health Board's Medical Officer of Health, Dr Ramon Pink says that the risk of long-term health effects associated with the odour is considered to be low.
However, repeated or prolonged exposure to odour can be stressful, and the person experiencing this may become particularly sensitive to the presence of the odour.
Acute health effects may vary between individuals due to the fact that perceptions of, and sensitivity to, odour can vary widely.
If the symptoms persist or you are experiencing effects, such as eye, nose or throat irritation and/or have a pre-existing medical condition then you should speak to your GP.
How is the pilot study different to previous efforts to determine the cause of odour?
Previously, we had used Ministry for the Environment guidance on key considerations when undertaking odour assessments.
As well, our response has been focused on acute odours, but we realised we need to address the ongoing chronic odours which really impact on residents.
While it might appear straightforward, determining the source of an odour to the degree necessary to support action required to address it is complex – there can be a number of variables involved – including wind, weather, distance, temperature and topography – and taking action requires a proper standard of evidence, which in turn helps ensure an appropriate action can be taken.
Previously, when reports were made, the situation could easily change by the time an officer arrived to investigate a report. The pilot study essentially crowd-sourced information from the community and used a range of other information sources to build a far more comprehensive picture of what was going on. This is a very new approach to addressing these sorts of issues.

Next steps

What happens now?
The two most significant odour emitters identified during the pilot study, Living Earth and EcoDrop are both run by the Christchurch City Council. Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council will work together to ensure the situation improves quickly, and odour emissions continue to be well managed. Environment Canterbury will continue to work with other odour-emitting businesses in Bromley to address any odour issues they may present.
Was there any difference during the COVID-19 lockdown?
The lockdown provided a unique comparative opportunity for the pilot study, but odour reports continued throughout the lockdown period.
Won't shutting down these businesses just make the odour go away?
The nature of the two biggest odour emitting businesses means they require continued management to address odour. Just shutting them down may leave an unmanaged issue on site with no improvement to the odour. The facilities serve the broader Christchurch area, so shutting them down could create other problems elsewhere.
How fast can we expect to see the odour situation in Bromley improve?
Environment Canterbury and the Christchurch City Council will work together with the intention of seeing rapid improvement in the short-term. We would expect to see significant improvement in the situation over the next three months.
What about the other odours?
Environment Canterbury will continue to work with other odour-emitting businesses in Bromley to ensure they are managing odour appropriately, and that they make any changes necessary to improve.
Environment Canterbury will also continue to investigate what some describe as a particularly chronic combination of odours.
What should residents do now?
Residents are strongly encouraged to continue to use the Smelt-It app to report odour. This will be an important part of ensuring that measures being taken to improve the odour situation are effective as quickly as possible.